Pediatric Dermatology

Herpes Zoster in Children

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Herpes zoster (HZ) in immunocompetent children is quite uncommon. Initial exposure to the varicella-zoster virus (VZV) may be from a wild-type or vaccine-related strain. Either strain may cause a latent infection and subsequent eruption of HZ. We present a case of HZ in a 15-month-old boy after receiving the varicella vaccination at 12 months of age. A review of the literature regarding the incidence, clinical characteristics, and diagnosis of HZ in children also is provided.

Practice Points

  • Herpes zoster (HZ) should be included in the differential diagnosis for children presenting with vesicular lesions in a dermatomal distribution and a history of varicella exposure.
  • Clinical diagnosis of HZ and herpes simplex virus can be aided by the use of viral polymerase chain reaction testing.
  • Children with HZ should be monitored for the same possible complications as adults.


 

References

Herpes zoster (HZ) is commonly seen in immunocompromised patients but is quite uncommon in immunocompetent children. Pediatric cases have been attributed to 1 of 3 primary exposures: intrauterine exposure to the varicella-zoster virus (VZV), postuterine exposure to wild-type VZV, or exposure due to vaccination with the live-attenuated strain of the virus.1

We report a case of HZ in an immunocompetent pediatric patient soon after routine VZV vaccination. We also review the literature on the incidence, clinical characteristics, and diagnostic aids for pediatric cases of HZ.

Case Report

A 15-month-old boy who was previously healthy presented with a red vesicular rash on the right upper cheek of 3 days’ duration. The patient was otherwise asymptomatic and had no constitutional symptoms. The patient’s mother reported an uncomplicated pregnancy and delivery with no history of maternal VZV infection. There was no known exposure to other individuals with VZV or a history of a similar rash. The patient was up-to-date on his immunizations, which included the VZV vaccine at 12 months of age.

Physical examination revealed vesicles and pustules with an erythematous base on the right zygoma extending to the right lateral canthus and upper eyelid in a dermatomal distribution (Figure). No lesions were present on any other area of the body. One group of vesicles was ruptured with a polyester-tipped applicator and submitted for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for suspected VZV infection. An ophthalmology evaluation revealed no ocular involvement.

Vesicles and pustules with an erythematous base on the right zygoma extending to the right lateral canthus and upper eyelid in a dermatomal distribution.

A clinical diagnosis of HZ was made and the patient was started on acyclovir 200 mg 4 times daily for 1 week. At 1-week follow-up, the lesions had cleared and the patient was asymptomatic. The PCR analysis confirmed the presence of VZV.

Although no complications were noted on the ophthalmologist’s initial examination or at the follow-up visit, 1 month later the patient’s father noted a “cloudy change” to the right eye. The patient had several subsequent evaluations with ophthalmologists and was treated for HZ ophthalmicus with acyclovir over the following 10 months. The patient’s mother reported eventual clearance of the eye findings without permanent visual sequelae. She stated that the PCR results documenting VZV positivity were extremely helpful for the ophthalmologist in establishing a diagnosis and treatment plan.

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