MAUI, HAWAII –
In the general population, those who develop osteoporosis are typically women who are thin and postmenopausal, and family history, smoking status, and alcohol use usually play a role, Long said at the Gastroenterology Updates, IBD, Liver Disease Conference.
But in the population with IBD, the risk for osteoporosis is similar in women and men, age plays a large role, and corticosteroid use seems to be a driving factor in the development of the disease, she explained.
A previous study that looked at fractures in patients with IBD showed that the risk “is 40% greater than in the general population,” Long reported. In patients younger than 40 years, the risk for fracture was 37% higher than in the general population, and this rate increased with age.
Fractures to the hip and spine are linked to significant morbidity, including hospitalization, major surgery, and even death, Long noted. But they are one of the preventable downstream effects of IBD, and patients need to understand that there’s something they can do about their elevated risk.
Patients should be educated on the importance of weight-bearing exercise and quitting smoking, she said.
“We need to think of preventive measures for anyone on more than 5 mg of prednisone a day for a time period of about 3 months,” she added. “Unfortunately, most of our patients meet this criterion.”
Patients with IBD should undergo dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to calculate bone density and establish the need for calcium and vitamin D supplementation.
“One of the things I’m starting to do in my practice is check vitamin D levels annually on my patients. I do this in the springtime and try to optimize their levels,” Long said.
Higher risk for herpes zoster
The risk for infection is also elevated in patients with IBD, including the risk for herpes zoster, which is already high, affecting one in three people in the general population.
In fact, the risk for herpes zoster in patients with IBD in their 20s is similar to the risk for people in their 50s in the general population. This is “something we need to be addressing in all of our patients,” said Long.
Physicians should emphasize the need for zoster vaccination in patients at least 50 years of age, and potentially younger patients on certain therapies, she added.
But because the Shingrix shingles vaccine (GlaxoSmithKline) is so much more powerful than the previous live vaccine, some have wondered whether it could stimulate an immune response, causing the IBD to flare after vaccination, she said.
However, a recent study of IBD patients followed for 207 days after shingles vaccination showed that only one of the 67 study participants (1.5%) experienced a flare. But fever is fairly common after the shot.
“I counsel my patients that they may feel pretty wiped out for 24 hours; they may have myalgias,” Long reported. “If you have someone who has to travel for work, you want them to time this vaccination so they can have a day of rest afterward. It’s the real deal.”