The use of four antibiotic classes designated “high risk” was found to be an independent predictor of hospital-acquired Clostridioides difficile (CDI), based upon an analysis of microbiologic and pharmacy data from 171 hospitals in the United States.
The high-risk antibiotic classes were second-, third-, and fourth-generation cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, carbapenems, and lincosamides, according to a report by, of Becton Dickinson in Franklin Lakes, N.J., and colleagues published in Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology.
Of the 171 study sites studied, 66 (39%) were teaching hospitals and 105 (61%) were nonteaching hospitals. The high-risk antibiotics most frequently used were cephalosporins (47.9%), fluoroquinolones (31.6%), carbapenems (13.0%), and lincosamides (7.6%). The sites were distributed across various regions of the United States. The hospital-level antibiotic use was measured as days of therapy (DOT) per 1,000 days present (DP).
The study was not able to determine specific links to individual antibiotic classes but to the use of high-risk antibiotics as a whole, except for cephalosporins, which were significantly correlated with hospital-acquired CDI (r = 0.23; P less than .01).
The overall correlation of high-risk antibiotic use and hospital-acquired CDI was 0.22 (P = .003). Higher correlation was observed in teaching hospitals (r = 0.38; P = .002) versus nonteaching hospitals (r = 0.19; P = .055), according to the researchers. The authors attributed this to the possibility of teaching hospitals dealing with more elderly and sicker patients.
After adjusting for significant confounders, the use of high-risk antibiotics was still independently associated with significant risk for hospital-acquired CDI. “For every 100-day increase of DOT per 1,000 DP in high-risk antibiotic use, there was a 12% increase in [hospital-acquired] CDI (RR, 1.12; 95% [confidence interval], 1.04-1.21; P = .002),” according to the authors. This translated to four additional hospital-acquired CDI cases with every 100 DOT increase per 1,000 DP.
“Using a large and current dataset, we found an independent impact of hospital-level high-risk antibiotic use on [hospital-acquired] CDI even after adjusting for confounding factors such as community CDI pressure, proportion of patients aged 65 years or older, average length of stay, and hospital teaching status,” the researchers concluded.
Funding was provided by Nabriva Therapeutics, an antibiotic development company. Four of the authors are full-time employees of Becton Dickinson, which sells diagnostics for infectious diseases, including CDI, and one author was an employee of Nabriva Therapeutics.
SOURCE: Tabak YP et al. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2019 Sep 16. doi: 10.1017/ice.2019.236.