A 39-year-old woman presented to an Arkansas cardiologist on February 12, 2010, with complaints of chest pain. The physician conducted an ankle-brachial index (ABI) test to measure the blood pressure in her lower extremity and interpreted it as less than 0.9%. He then ordered an echocardiogram to gauge the patient’s ejection fraction and interpreted the reading at 25%. Both measurements were below the normal average, which prompted the cardiologist to diagnose peripheral vascular disease and congestive heart failure.
The patient was eventually prescribed a course of cardiac medication and monitored over the ensuing months. On April 15, the cardiologist conducted a nuclear stress test; the computer-generated measurement of her ejection fraction was 50%, which the physician adjusted to 42%. In May, the patient underwent cardiac catheterization, which showed no lesions or blockages in the vessels. In the following months, the patient’s medication dosages were increased. On September 27, the cardiologist conducted another echocardiogram, which he read as 30%, and reaffirmed his diagnosis of congestive heart failure.
The physician continued to monitor the patient. On November 11, after being diagnosed with congestive heart failure, the patient was admitted to the hospital, where the cardiologist implanted an automated implantable cardioverter defibrillator (AICD).
On May 18, 2011, while running with her 2 daughters and a friend, the patient suddenly collapsed and experienced electrical currents coursing through her body (5 times). She was driven to a hospital, where it was determined that she did not go into cardiac arrest (which she suspected) but rather her defibrillator malfunctioned. The defibrillator was recalibrated to a higher setting, and she experienced no further issues.
In the ensuing years, the patient continued to follow up with her cardiologist. She eventually filed a lawsuit claiming that he had misdiagnosed congestive heart failure and unnecessarily implanted the AICD. Her experts in cardiology and cardiac electrophysiology testified that the defendant’s readings of the February 2010 ABI and echocardiogram results were incorrect; the ABIs were in fact .128 and .138 and the ejection fractions were 50% to 55% percent—in both instances, normal results. Furthermore, the September 2010 echocardiogram and another taken in February 2011, which showed little change from the first echocardiogram, were also normal, according to the experts.
The experts also opined that American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines state that a patient’s ejection fraction has to be less than 35% before a defibrillator is placed. Both experts concluded that the plaintiff did not have congestive heart failure and was therefore not a candidate for an AICD. The cardiac electrophysiology expert stated that to be a candidate, a patient must have an enlarged left ventricle—which plaintiff did not have. Moreover, none of the plaintiff’s physical findings were ever consistent with congestive heart failure: She did not have fluid in her lungs, as examinations always revealed clear lungs without congestion; there was no distention in her jugular veins; she did not experience sleep apnea; she did not lose consciousness; and she only experienced fatigue with exertion. The cardiology expert further faulted the defendant for failing to adjust the patient’s medication dosages to optimize her cardiac repair.
The defense maintained that the defendant’s treatment of the patient met the standard of care. According to the defense, the defendant’s judgment and interpretation of the patient’s ABI and echocardiogram results were medically sound and the defibrillator was necessary.
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