Heart Failure: A Dynamic Approach to Classification and Management

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Although accreditation for this CE/CME activity has expired, and the posttest is no longer available, you can still read the full article.

Expires April 30, 2019

Heart failure is a complex syndrome with a spectrum of signs and symptoms that range from asymptomatic to terminal. This variability of presentation, paired with the irreversibility of the process, make it both difficult and critical to identify this syndrome early to prevent progression. Here is an overview of the classification and common presentations of heart failure, as well as a guide to diagnostic modalities and treatment options.



CE/CME No: CR-1805

Earn credit by reading this article and successfully completing the posttest and evaluation. Successful completion is defined as a cumulative score of at least 70% correct.

• Develop an understanding of the classification of heart failure and its associated signs and symptoms.
• Describe clinical findings of heart failure from the physical exam.
• Understand the utility of laboratory and imaging studies for diagnosis of heart failure and its underlying causes.
• Demonstrate knowledge of nonpharmacotherapeutic and pharmacotherapeutic options for managing heart failure.

Michael Roscoe is Chair/Program Director and Associate Professor, Andrew Lampkins is Associate Professor, Sean Harper is Assistant Professor, and Gina Niemeier is Associate Program Director and Assistant Professor, in the PA Department at the University of Evansville in Indiana.

The authors have no financial relationships to disclose.


This program has been reviewed and is approved for a maximum of 1.0 hour of American Academy of Physician Assistants (AAPA) Category 1 CME credit by the Physician Assistant Review Panel. [NPs: Both ANCC and the AANP Certification Program recognize AAPA as an approved provider of Category 1 credit.] Approval is valid through April 30, 2019.

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