Q)Someone at a conference I attended said kidney disease and bad teeth go hand in hand. Is this true? What does that mean for my patients?
“Bad teeth” can refer to periodontitis, a chronic inflammation of the tissue and structures around the teeth. The sixth most common disease in the world, periodontitis often leads to shrinkage of the gums, infection, and subsequent loosening or loss of teeth.3
Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are predisposed to oral lesions and tooth decay related to dryness of the mouth; alterations in taste; malnutrition; and low albumin. Certain medications—such as ß-blockers, diuretics, anticholinergics, anticonvulsants, and serotonin reuptake inhibitors—can increase the risk for dry mouth and negatively affect oral structures.4
Compared with community-dwelling adults, those with CKD have higher rates of periodontitis, which increase with disease progression.5 A systematic review found that periodontitis increases the risk for CKD; evidence was inconclusive for the impact of periodontal treatment on estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) but suggested positive improvements in eGFR.6
There is growing evidence of a multifaceted relationship between CKD, diabetes, periodontitis, and cardiovascular disease (CVD), the leading cause of mortality in patients with CKD.7 Studies have shown that periodontitis can contribute to systemic inflammation, inhibiting glycemic control and elevating the risk for conditions such as CVD.8-10