IM Board Review

A 48-year-old man with uncontrolled diabetes

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THE PATIENT CONTINUES TO DO WELL

The patient is discharged from the hospital on an insulin regimen. His blood sugar levels are closely monitored and remain near normal. Six months after the episode of diabetic ketoacidosis, his insulin is discontinued.

TAKE-HOME POINTS

Diabetic ketoacidosis is not unique to type 1 diabetes mellitus. It can occur in type 2, more commonly in patients who are nonwhite and who have precipitating factors such as acute illness, inadequate insulin treatment, or newly diagnosed diabetes. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of diabetic ketoacidosis even in patients with type 2 diabetes who may not have these risk factors.

One approach to recognizing diabetic ketoacidosis better in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus would include checking urine for ketones and serum electrolytes for high anion gap acidosis when patients with type 2 diabetes present with uncontrolled blood sugar levels. If ketonuria or acidosis is present, serum ketone and beta-hydroxybutyrate levels should be obtained to evaluate for diabetic ketoacidosis.

Patients should take insulin for an indeterminate period of time after initial treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis. As our case illustrates, in many cases, beta-cell function will return sufficiently to allow insulin to be discontinued. There are no clear guidelines for how long to continue insulin, but most practitioners continue it for weeks to months and discontinue it when glucose levels are stable and remain so with tapering doses. Sometimes oral agents need to be added as insulin is tapered.

Insulin therapy is tailored to the individual patient on the basis of blood glucose values. There are no data on which type of insulin is the most effective, and there are no data on whether these patients are at greater risk of hypoglycemia than other patients taking insulin. In general, there is no evidence that “prophylactic” insulin (ie, giving insulin to prevent diabetic ketoacidosis during times of illness or stress) is required. However, blood glucose monitoring is appropriate during infection or stress, and if hyperglycemia occurs in these situations, insulin use is prudent to reduce the risks of recurrent diabetic ketoacidosis.

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