KNOWING THE ANATOMY IS CRUCIAL
Knowledge of venous anatomy and its variants is crucial both for insertion and for ascertaining the correct placement of central venous lines.
The azygos vein has a much smaller lumen than the superior vena cava. Although the lumen size may vary significantly, the maximum diameter of the anterior arch of the azygos vein is about 6 to 7 mm,11 whereas the superior vena cava lumen is typically 1.5 to 2 cm in diameter.12 In addition, when a catheter is inserted into the superior vena cava, the direction of blood flow and the direction of the infusion are the same, but when the catheter is inserted into the azygos system, the directions of blood flow and infusion are opposite, contributing to local turbulence.
Both these factors increase the chance of puncturing the vein when the azygos arch is aberrantly cannulated for central venous access.9 Venous perforation has been reported in as many as 19% of cases in which the azygos arch was inadvertently cannulated. Venous perforation can lead to hemopericardium, hemomediastinum, and hemorrhagic pleural effusions, which can lead to significant morbidity and even death. Perforation, thrombosis, stenosis, and complete occlusion have been reported subsequent to catheter malposition in the azygos vein.13
Patients in whom the azygos vein is inadvertently cannulated may tolerate infusions and blood draws, but this does not mean that inadvertent azygos vein cannulation is acceptable, especially given the late complications of vascular perforation that can occur.9
The cannulation of the azygos vein in our patient was completely unintentional; nevertheless, the line was kept in and used for a short period for the initial rehydration and pain control and was subsequently removed without any complications.
WHEN IS CANNULATION OF THE AZYGOS VEIN AN OPTION?
In patients with previous multiple central vein cannulations, the rates of thrombosis and of fibrotic changes in these veins are high. In patients with thrombosis of both the superior vena cava and the inferior vena cava, direct insertion of a catheter into the azygos vein has been suggested as an alternate route to obtain access for dialysis.8 This approach has also been used successfully to administer total parenteral nutrition for a prolonged time in pediatric patients.14 In short, the azygos vein is never preferred for central venous access, but it can occasionally serve as an alternate route.5–9
The radiographic assessment of an internal jugular or subclavian line may occasionally be deceptive if based solely on the anteroposterior view; confirmation may require a lateral view. We found no guidelines for using the azygos vein for central venous access. The options in cases of aberrant cannulation include leaving the line in, removing and reinserting it at the same or another site under fluoroscopy, and attempting to reposition it after changing the catheter over a guidewire.
The use of central lines found to be in an aberrant position should be driven by clinical judgment based on the urgency of the need of access, the availability or feasibility of other access options, and the intended use. The use of the azygos vein is fraught with procedural complications, as well as postprocedural complications related to vascular perforation. If the position of the catheter tip on the anteroposterior radiographic view is not satisfactory, obtaining a lateral view should be considered.