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Can procalcitonin guide decisions about antibiotic management?

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Yes, but with caution. Multiple randomized controlled trials showed that procalcitonin testing can help guide antibiotic management in a variety of clinical scenarios including sepsis, respiratory tract infection, and exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and that procalcitonin guidance led to less antibiotic use with either unchanged or better outcomes. Moreover, observational studies have shown high negative predictive values for procalcitonin testing in other clinical situations such as bacteremia and bacterial meningitis, allowing clinicians to rule out these diagnoses if the clinical probability is low or moderate.

Nonetheless, clinical judgment must be exercised to consider the possibility of false- positive and false-negative results, especially if clinical suspicion for bacterial infection is high.

A RESPONSE TO BACTERIAL TOXIN

Procalcitonin is a peptide precursor of calcitonin that is produced by C cells of the thyroid and by neuroendocrine cells of the lung and intestine in response to bacterial toxin. In contrast, procalcitonin levels are down-regulated in viral infection.

Levels of procalcitonin increase 6 to 12 hours after stimulation, and the half-life is roughly 24 hours.1 This suggests levels should decrease by one-half daily if an infection is controlled and is responding to therapy (assuming normal clearance).

The test costs about $25, with a turnaround time of 20 to 60 minutes, or longer at institutions that send the test out or run the tests in batches.

Point-of-care procalcitonin testing is emerging but not yet commercially available in the United States. Despite extensive observational studies and randomized controlled trials over the past 20 years, procalcitonin’s physiologic role remains unclear. The large body of evidence of the clinical utility of procalcitonin measurement has been summarized in several meta-analyses in different diseases.

PROCALCITONIN TESTING IN SEPSIS

Trials of procalcitonin testing have had slightly different inclusion criteria that commonly overlap with similar diagnoses. Sepsis is the broadest cohort studied.

The Procalcitonin to Reduce Antibiotic Treatments in Acutely Ill Patients (PRORATA) trial2 randomized 621 patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with suspected bacterial infections to antibiotic therapy guided by procalcitonin concentrations or to antibiotic therapy based on current guidelines. The source of infection varied, but 73% of patients had pulmonary infections.The procalcitonin algorithm was as follows:

  • Starting antibiotics was discouraged if the procalcitonin concentration was less than 0.5 ng/mL, and strongly discouraged if less than 0.25 ng/mL
  • Starting antibiotics was encouraged if the concentration was 0.5 ng/mL or higher, and strongly encouraged if 1 ng/mL or higher
  • Stopping antibiotics was encouraged if the concentration dropped by at least 80% from the peak level or to a level greater than or equal to 0.25 ng/mL; stopping was strongly encouraged if the concentration fell below 0.25 ng/mL.

There was also guidance to change antibiotics if procalcitonin increased on therapy and was above 0.5 ng/mL.

Although the study physicians generally followed the algorithm, they were allowed to override it based on clinical judgment. The main results were that the number of days without antibiotics was higher in the procalcitonin group than in the controls (14.3 vs 11.6 days), with no other statistically significant difference between groups. These findings supported the idea that procalcitonin can guide clinicians to safely “deprescribe” antibiotics.

The Stop Antibiotics on Guidance of Procalcitonin Study (SAPS),3 published in 2016, was a larger trial with similar design, in 1,575 patients admitted to the ICU with suspected infection. Antibiotic use was less and the 28-day mortality rate was lower with procalcitonin guidance: 20% vs 25% in the intention-to-treat analysis.

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