The specific nature of surgical treatment links the action of the physician and the response of the patient more intimately than in other areas of medicine....When the patient of an internist dies, the natural question his colleagues ask is, “What happened?” When the patient of a surgeon dies, his colleagues ask, “What did you do?” 16
As in clinical surgical practice, in surgical research, it is the personal and individualized mediation of the surgeon that is central to the intervention. Here the intermediary is neither a drug nor its bioavailability; rather, it is the operator’s technique plus or minus the operative design and the reliability of an instrument or a device. In either case, the contribution is more proximate and personal, stemming from the actions of individual surgeons and the work of their hands.
History is instructive on this theme of surgical causality and personal culpability if we consider the life of Harvey Cushing, a Cleveland native whose ashes are buried nearby in Lake View Cemetery. 17 Cushing was a gifted and innovative surgeon whose technique handling tissues changed how the brain was approached operatively. He is acknowledged as the father of neurosurgery, having created a professional nexus to institutionalize and carry on his innovative work. 18
Cushing’s greatest innovation was probably in his individual efforts as a working surgeon. Over the course of his lifetime, he made the resection of brain tumors a safe and sometimes effective treatment for an otherwise dread disease. Michael Bliss, Cushing’s most recent biographer, reports mortality data from more than 2,400 surgeries done by Cushing during his operative lifetime. 17 Early in his career (from 1896 to 1911), while he was at Johns Hopkins, Cushing’s case mortality rate was 24.7%. During his later years at the Brigham Hospital, it was 16.2%. By 1930–1931 it was down to 8.8%.
These were extraordinary statistics: no one matched Cushing’s numbers, or his ability to do what he did. Bliss cites mortality data from his surgical contemporaries in the late 1920s as ranging from approximately 35% to 45%. By the numbers Bliss compares Cushing’s talent—his truly brilliant outlier performance—to that of his Jazz Age contemporary, Babe Ruth, who also had outsized talent compared with his peers. 17
Cushing himself, a collegiate second baseman at Yale, linked sport and statistics in a most telling way. Documenting his ongoing surgical progress was a hedge against failure and lightened the emotional burdens of the surgical suite. Cushing observed: “A neurosurgeon’s responsibilities would be insufferable if he did not feel that his knowledge of an intricate subject was constantly growing—that his game was improving.” 17
This quote and Cushing’s operative statistics point to his nascent effort to engage in evidence-based research and speaks to the spectacular difference that a surgical innovator can make. The extraordinary results achieved by Cushing in his day also suggest that surgeons are not fungible at the vanguard of discovery. History tells us, as contemporary assessments of current research cannot, that only Harvey Cushing could achieve Cushingoid results.