Concussion: Evaluation and management

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Dizziness is also common after concussion. But what the patient means by dizziness requires a little probing. Some have paroxysms of vertigo. This typically represents a peripheral vestibular injury, usually benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. The latter can be elicited with a Hallpike maneuver and treated in the office with the Epley maneuver.33

Usually, dizziness is a subjective sense of poor coordination, gait instability, or dysequilibrium. Patients may also complain of associated nausea and motion sensitivity. This may all be secondary to a mechanism in the middle or inner ear or the brain. Patients should be encouraged to begin movement—gradually and safely—to help the vestibular system accommodate, which it will do with gradual stimulation. It usually resolves spontaneously.

Specific treatment is unfortunately limited. There is no established benefit from vestibular suppressants such as meclizine. Vestibular rehabilitation may accelerate improvement and decrease symptoms.33 Referral for a comprehensive balance assessment or to vestibular therapy (a subset of physical therapy) should be considered and is something we typically undertake in our clinic if there is no recovery from dizziness 4 to 6 weeks after the concussion.

Visual symptoms can contribute to dizziness. Convergence spasm or convergence insufficiency (both related to muscle spasm of the eye) can occur after concussion, with some studies estimating that up to 69% of patients have these symptoms.34 This can interfere with visual tracking and contribute to a feeling of dysequilibrium.34 Referral to a concussion specialist or vestibular rehabilitation physical therapist can be helpful in treating this issue if it does not resolve spontaneously.

Orthostasis and lightheadedness also contribute to dizziness and are associated with cerebrovascular autoregulation. Available data suggest that dysregulation of neurovascular coupling, cerebral vasoreactivity, and cerebral autoregulation contribute to some of the chronic symptoms of concussion, including dizziness. A gradual return to exercise may help regulate cerebral blood flow and improve this type of dizziness.35

Sleep disturbance

Sleep disturbance is common after concussion, but the form is variable: insomnia, excessive daytime somnolence, and alteration of the sleep-wake cycle are all seen and may themselves affect recovery.36

Sleep hygiene education should be the first intervention for postconcussive sleep issues. For example, the patient should be encouraged to do the following:

  • Minimize “screen time” an hour before going to bed: cell phone, tablet, and computer screens emit a wavelength of light that suppresses endogenous melatonin release37,38
  • Go to bed and wake up at the same time each day
  • Minimize or avoid caffeine, nicotine, and alcohol
  • Avoid naps.39

Melatonin is a safe and effective treatment that could be added.40 In addition, some studies suggest that melatonin may improve recovery from traumatic brain injury.41,42

Mild exercise (to below the threshold of causing or exacerbating symptoms) may also improve sleep quality.

Amitriptyline or nortriptyline may reduce headache frequency and intensity and also help treat insomnia.

Trazodone is recommended by some as a first-line agent,39 but we usually reserve it for protracted insomnia refractory to the above treatments.

Benzodiazepines should be avoided, as they reduce arousal, impair cognition, and exacerbate motor impairments.43

Emotional symptoms

Acute-onset anxiety or depression often occurs after concussion.44,45 There is abundant evidence that emotional effects of injury may be the most significant factor in recovery.46 A preinjury history of anxiety may be a prognostic factor.9 Patients with a history of anxiety or depression are more likely to develop emotional symptoms after a concussion, but emotional problems may develop in any patient after a concussion.47,48

The circumstances under which an injury is sustained may be traumatic (eg, car accident, assault), leading to an acute stress reaction or disorder and, if untreated, may result in a more chronic condition—posttraumatic stress disorder. Moreover, the injury and subsequent symptoms may have repercussions in many aspects of the patient’s life, leading to further psychologic stress (eg, loss of wages or the inability to handle normal work, school, and family responsibilities).

Referral to a therapist trained in skills-based psychotherapy (eg, cognitive-behavioral therapy, exposure-based treatment) is often helpful.

Pharmacologic treatment can be a useful adjunct. Several studies have shown that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, and tricyclic antidepressants may improve depression after concussion.49 The prescription of antidepressants, however, is best left to providers with experience in treating anxiety and depression.

As with sleep disorders after concussion, benzodiazepines should be avoided, as they can impair cognition.43

Cognitive problems

Cognitive problems are also common after concussion. Patients complain about everyday experiences of forgetfulness, distractibility, loss of concentration, and mental fatigue. Although patients often subjectively perceive these symptoms as quite limiting, the impairments can be difficult to demonstrate in office testing.

A program of gradual increase in mental activity, parallel to recovery of physical capacity, should be undertaken. Most patients make a gradual recovery within a few weeks.50

When cognitive symptoms cause significant school or vocational problems or become persistent, patients should be referred to a specialty clinic. As with most of the consequences of concussion, there are few established treatments. When cognitive difficulties persist, it is important to consider the complications of concussion mentioned above: headache, pain, sleep disturbance, and anxiety, all of which may cause subjective cognitive problems and are treatable.

If cognitive symptoms are prolonged despite improvement of other issues like headache and sleep disturbance, a low-dose stimulant medication such as amphetamine salts or methylphenidate may be useful for symptoms of poor attention.49 They should be only a temporary measure after concussion to carry the patient through a cognitively challenging period, unless there was a history of attention-deficit disorder before the injury. A variety of other agents, including amantadine,51 have been proposed based on limited studies; all are off-label uses. Before considering these types of interventions, referral to a specialist or a specialty program would be appropriate.

Next Article:

Understanding the bell-ringing of concussion

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