Troponin elevation after noncardiac surgery: Significance and management

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ABSTRACTHow to interpret and manage troponin elevations after noncardiac surgery is a common clinical question for cardiologists and internists. An estimated 5% to 25% of patients who undergo noncardiac surgery have an elevated postoperative troponin level. Patients with troponin elevation are at higher short-term and long-term risk of morbidity and mortality. Current guidelines provide few recommendations on how to manage these patients. The authors review the evidence and guidelines and propose treatment strategies.


  • Cardiovascular events are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing noncardiac surgery and occur frequently, especially in high-risk patients.
  • Myocardial injury or infarction after noncardiac surgery heightens the short- and long-term risk of mortality and major adverse cardiac events.
  • The dominant mechanism of myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery remains uncertain.
  • In the absence of therapies proven to affect the outcome, the benefit of screening to identify these patients remains uncertain.
  • Clinical trials are under way to help clinicians provide optimal care to this at-risk population.



More than 200 million patients undergo noncardiac surgery each year, and the volume is increasing.1 Cardiovascular complications are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the perioperative period.

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Before the advent of modern cardiac biomarkers, an estimated 2% to 3% of all patients undergoing noncardiac surgery had a major adverse cardiac event.2 However, more recent studies suggest that 5% to 25% of patients have troponin elevations after noncardiac surgery, depending on the patient population,3–6 and many are asymptomatic, suggesting that many patients are sustaining undetected myocardial injury. Those who suffer a myocardial infarction or myocardial injury have elevated morbidity and mortality rates, not only perioperatively, but also at 30 days and even at up to 1 year.3–5,7–11

Yet there are almost no data on how best to manage these patients; the available guidelines, therefore, do not provide sufficient recommendations for clinical practice.

To address the lack of guidelines, we examine the incidence and proposed mechanisms of myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery, suggest an approach to identifying patients at risk, recommend treatment strategies, and consider future directions.


When cardiac cellular injury from ischemia, direct trauma, or other cause disrupts the cell membrane, intracellular contents enter the extracellular space, including the blood stream. If the myocyte damage is extensive enough, biochemical assays can detect these substances.

Time of release of selected cardiac biomarkers after MI Reprinted from Kumar A, et al. Acute coronary syndromes: diagnosis and management,part I. Mayo Clin Proc 2009; 84:917–938, with permission from Elsevier.
Figure 1. Time of release of selected cardiac biomarkers after myocardial infarction.

Troponin, creatine kinase, myoglobin, and lactate dehydrogenase are common biomarkers of necrosis that, when detected in the plasma, may indicate cardiac injury. Each can be detected at varying times after cardiac injury (Figure 1).12

Cardiac troponins I and T

Of the biomarkers, cardiac troponin I and cardiac troponin T are now the most widely used and are the most specific for myocyte injury.

Troponins are proteins that regulate the calcium-induced interaction between myosin and actin that results in muscle contraction. Troponin is a complex consisting of three subunits: troponin C, troponin I, and troponin T. The cardiac troponin I and T isoforms are distinct from those found in skeletal muscle, making them specific for myocyte injury, and they are currently the recommended markers for diagnosing acute myocardial infarction.13

The troponin immunoassays currently available are not standardized among laboratories and point-of-care methods, and thus, levels cannot be compared across testing centers.14 Each assay has unique performance characteristics, but guidelines recommend using the 99th percentile value from a normal reference population for a given assay to define whether myocardial injury is present.13

Troponin elevation has prognostic value in patients presenting with acute coronary syndromes,15–18 and the degree of elevation correlates with infarct size.19–21

Controversy exists as to whether troponin and other biomarkers are released only after myocardial necrosis or after reversible injury as well. Using newer, highly sensitive assays, troponin elevations have been detected after short periods of ischemia during stress testing22,23 and in patients with stable angina,24 suggesting that reversible cardiac stress and injury can lead to troponin release. This mechanism may play an important role during the myocardial injury that can occur in patients undergoing noncardiac surgery.


In 2000, the Joint Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology, American College of Cardiology Foundation, American Heart Association, and World Heart Federation revised the criteria for the diagnosis of myocardial infarction created by the World Health Organization in 1979. The definition was revised again in 2007 and once more in 2012 to create the third universal definition of myocardial infarction.

Acute myocardial infarction

Acute myocardial infarction is defined as evidence of myocardial necrosis in a setting of myocardial ischemia, not related to causes such as trauma or pulmonary embolism, with a rise or a fall (or a rise and a fall) of cardiac biomarkers (at least one value being above the 99th percentile in the reference population) and any of the following:

  • Symptoms of ischemia
  • New ST-segment changes or new left bundle branch block
  • Pathologic Q waves
  • Imaging evidence of new loss of viable myocardium or new regional wall-motion abnormality
  • Intracoronary thrombus by angiography or autopsy.13

Myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery

Studies10,11 have shown that many patients undergoing noncardiac surgery have evidence of cardiac biomarker release but do not meet the universal definition of myocardial infarction.

The Perioperative Ischemic Evaluation (POISE) trial10 reported that 415 (5%) of its patients met the definition of myocardial infarction, of whom only about 35% had symptoms of ischemia. Another 697 patients (8.3%) had isolated elevations in biomarkers without meeting the definition of myocardial infarction.

The VISION study11 (Vascular Events in Noncardiac Surgery Patients Cohort Evaluation) prospectively screened more than 15,000 patients in several countries for troponin elevation during the first 3 postoperative days and for ischemic symptoms and features. Of the patients screened, approximately 1,200 (8%) had troponin elevations, with fewer than half fulfilling the criteria for myocardial infarction.

In another study, van Waes et al6 prospectively screened 2,232 patients ages 60 and older undergoing intermediate- to high-risk noncardiac surgery. Troponin levels were elevated in 19% of the patients, but only 10 of these patients met the universal definition of myocardial infarction.

In all of these studies, patients with isolated elevation in myocardial biomarkers had worse short-term and long-term outcomes than those without. These observations led to a proposed definition of “myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery” that is broader than that of myocardial infarction and requires only elevation of cardiac biomarkers judged to be due to myocardial ischemia (ie, not from another obvious cause such as pulmonary embolism or myocarditis).3


The Joint Task Force13 categorizes myocardial infarction into five distinct types:

  • Type 1—due to plaque rupture
  • Type 2—due to imbalance between oxygen supply and demand
  • Type 3—sudden cardiac death
  • Type 4a—associated with percutaneous coronary intervention
  • Type 4b—associated with stent thrombosis
  • Type 5—associated with coronary artery bypass surgery.

Types 1 and 2 have both been implicated in perioperative myocardial infarction and injury. Patient characteristics and the physiologic response to surgical and anesthetic stressors likely contribute to the development of myocardial infarction and injury after noncardiac surgery.

Plaque rupture as a cause of postoperative myocardial infarction

The mechanism of type 1 myocardial infarction—plaque rupture or erosion leading to thrombosis and infarction—plays a significant role in most cases of acute coronary syndromes. Its role in perioperative and postoperative myocardial infarction or injury, however, is less clear.

In an autopsy study of 26 patients who died of myocardial infarction after noncardiac surgery, plaque rupture was evident in 12 (46%).25 A prospective angiographic study of 120 patients with acute coronary syndromes after noncardiac surgery found that nearly 50% had evidence of plaque rupture.26

Higher levels of catecholamines, cortisol,27,28 platelet reactivity,29 procoagulant factors,30 and coronary artery shear stress31 are all present in the postoperative period and may contribute to an increased propensity for plaque rupture or erosion. Whether plaque rupture is present in patients who have isolated troponin elevation but do not meet the criteria for myocardial infarction has not been investigated.

Oxygen supply-demand imbalance during and after surgery

Oxygen supply-demand imbalance (the mechanism in type 2 myocardial infarction) leading to myocyte stress, ischemia, and subsequent infarction is likely common in the perioperative and postoperative periods. As previously discussed, this imbalance may be present with or without symptoms.

Oxygen demand may increase in this period as a result of tachycardia32 caused by bleeding, pain, and catecholamines or increased wall stress from hypertension due to vasoconstriction or pain.33 Oxygen supply can be decreased secondary to tachycardia, anemia,34 hypotension, hypoxemia, hypercarbia, intravascular fluid shifts (bleeding or volume overload), or coronary vasoconstriction.33,35

These mechanisms of myocardial injury, infarction, or both can occur with or without underlying significant obstructive coronary artery disease. However, severe coronary artery disease is more common in those who have had a perioperative myocardial infarction.36

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