Current Drug Therapy

Ceftaroline fosamil: A super-cephalosporin?

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ABSTRACTCeftaroline is a broad-spectrum cephalosporin used to treat infections caused by a variety of microorganisms, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and multidrug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. However, it is not active against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacteroides fragilis, and carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae. Its approved indications include community-acquired bacterial pneumonia and bacterial infections of skin and skin structures. It has also been used off-label to treat osteomyelitis, endocarditis, and meningitis caused by ceftaroline-susceptible organisms.

KEY POINTS

  • Resistance of S aureus and S pneumoniae to multiple antimicrobial drugs is on the rise, and new agents are urgently needed.
  • Ceftaroline’s molecular structure was designed to provide enhanced activity against MRSA and multidrug-resistant S pneumoniae.
  • In clinical trials leading to its approval, ceftaroline was found to be at least as effective as ceftriaxone in treating community-acquired pneumonia and at least as effective as vancomycin plus aztreonam in treating acute bacterial skin and skin-structure infections.
  • The routine use of ceftaroline for these indications should be balanced by its higher cost compared with ceftriaxone or vancomycin. Ongoing studies should shed more light on its role in treatment.


 

References

Ceftaroline fosamil (Teflaro), introduced to the US market in October 2010, is the first beta-lactam agent with clinically useful activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Currently, it is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat acute bacterial skin and skin-structure infections and community-acquired bacterial pneumonia caused by susceptible microorganisms.

In an era of increasing drug resistance and limited numbers of antimicrobials in the drug-production pipeline, ceftaroline is a step forward in fulfilling the Infectious Diseases Society of America’s “10 × ’20 Initiative” to increase support for drug research and manufacturing, with the goal of producing 10 new antimicrobial drugs by the year 2020.1 Ceftaroline was the first of several antibiotics to receive FDA approval in response to this initiative. It was followed by dalbavancin (May 2014), tedizolid phosphate (June 2014), oritavancin (August 2014), ceftolozane-tazobactam (December 2014), and ceftazidime-avibactam (February 2015). These antibiotic agents are aimed at treating infections caused by drug-resistant gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms. It is important to understand and optimize the use of these new antibiotic agents in order to decrease the risk of emerging antibiotic resistance and superinfections (eg, Clostridium difficile infection) caused by antibiotic overuse or misuse.

This article provides an overview of ceftaroline’s mechanisms of action and resistance, spectrum of activity, pharmacokinetic properties, adverse effects, and current place in therapy.

AN ERA OF MULTIDRUG-RESISTANT MICROORGANISMS

Increasing rates of antimicrobial resistance threaten the efficacy of antimicrobial drugs in the daily practice of medicine. The World Health Organization has labeled antimicrobial resistance one of the three greatest threats to human health. Global efforts are under way to stimulate development of new antimicrobial agents and to decrease rates of antimicrobial resistance.

Staphylococcus aureus: A threat, even with vancomycin

Between 1998 and 2005, S aureus was one of the most common inpatient and outpatient isolates reported by clinical laboratories throughout the United States.2

Treatment of S aureus infection is complicated by a variety of resistance mechanisms that have evolved over time. In fact, the first resistant isolate of S aureus emerged not long after penicillin’s debut into clinical practice, and now the majority of strains are resistant to penicillin.

Methicillin was designed to overcome this beta-lactamase resistance and became the treatment of choice for penicillin-resistant S aureus isolates. However, MRSA isolates soon emerged because of the organism’s acquisition of penicillin-binding protein PBP2a via the mecA gene, leading to decreased binding affinity of methicillin.3

Since then, several agents active against MRSA (vancomycin, daptomycin, linezolid, tigecycline) have been introduced and continue to be widely used. While vancomycin is considered the first-line option for a variety of MRSA infections, its use has been threatened because of the emergence of vancomycin-intermediate-resistant S aureus (VISA), S aureus strains displaying vancomycin heteroresistance (hVISA), and vancomycin-resistant S aureus (VRSA) strains.4

VISA and hVISA isolates emerged through sequential mutations that lead to autolytic activity and cell-wall thickening. In contrast, the mechanism of resistance in VRSA is by acquisition of the vanA resistance gene, which alters the binding site of vancomycin from d-alanine-d-alanine to d-alanine-d-lactate.5

Streptococcus pneumoniae resistance: A continuing problem

The prevalence of drug resistance in S pneumoniae has risen since the late 1990s. A 2013 report from the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program stated that almost 20% of S pneumoniae isolates were resistant to amoxicillin-clavulanate, and similar trends have been observed for penicillin (14.8%) and ceftriaxone (11.7%).6

S pneumoniae resistance is acquired through modifications of the penicillin-binding proteins, namely PBP1a, PBP2b, PBP2x, and, less frequently, PBP2a. These modifications lead to decreased binding affinity for most beta-lactams.7

Clinical impact of multidrug-resistant S aureus and S pneumoniae

In 2011, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported an estimated 80,000 severe MRSA infections and 11,000 MRSA-related deaths in the United States.8 In the same report, drug-resistant S pneumoniae was estimated to be responsible for almost 1.2 million illnesses and 7,000 deaths per year, leading to upwards of $96 million in related medical costs.

While invasive drug-resistant S pneumoniae infections usually affect patients at the extremes of age (under age 5 and over age 65), they have had a serious impact on patients of all ages.8

In light of the increasing prevalence of multidrug-resistant organisms, newer antimicrobial agents with novel mechanisms of action are needed.

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