CHICAGO – Surgery and endovascular treatment for peripheral artery disease (PAD) among patients with claudication improves health status more in the setting of isolated iliac disease and multilevel disease than in other forms of PAD, which suggests that vascular specialists should give pause before pursuing interventions on superficial femoral and infrapopliteal artery lesions, a researcher of the PORTRAIT registry reported at the annual meeting of the Midwestern Vascular Surgery Society.
“Our analysis demonstrated that interventions for aortoiliac disease and multilevel disease appeared to improve overall health status more over time compared to femoral-popliteal disease and infrapopliteal disease,” said, of the University of Missouri Health System in Columbia.
The study evaluated improvement in Peripheral Artery Questionnaire (PAQ) scores from baseline to post intervention in 623 patients in the PORTRAIT (Patient-Centered Outcomes Related to Treatment Practices in Peripheral Arterial Disease: Investigating Trajectories) registry. The patients were selected and combined with anatomic data on the nature of their claudication. Aortoiliac-only (AI) disease represented 20.4% (n = 127) of the study group, femoral-popliteal-only (FP) 35.5% (n = 221), infrapopliteal/distal (IP) 6.3% (n = 39), and multilevel disease (ML) 37.9% (n = 236).
In terms of demographics, patients in the AI group tended to be younger (average age of 61.2 years vs. 66.6 years for the study overall; P less than .001) and had a higher rate of smokers (96.1% former and current smokers vs. 90.7% overall; P less than .001). Otherwise, Dr. Vogel noted, demographics, smoking status, and severity of claudication were similar across the disease groups.
Rates of medical intervention were similar in the AI and ML disease groups, which were primarily endovascular procedures: 26% and 27%, respectively. The AI group had the highest rates of endovascular interventions, at 24%, with the FP group at 15%, IP at 11% and ML at 21%. Those who did not have surgery or endovascular aneurysm repair were treated medically.
“The AI group did significantly better at 3 months than the other groups,” Dr. Vogel pointed out, noting that at 12 months those patients had an average PAQ score of around 78 versus scores of around 75 for FP, 74 for IP, and 70 for ML.
“In the AI group, there’s also an immediate increase in quality of life that is sustained over time,” he said. At 3 months, PAQ scores in AI patients who had endovascular aneurysm repair increased 41 points over baseline, leveling off to a 38.8-point gain at 12 months, the highest gains across all disease groups and all treatment categories.
“However,” Dr. Vogel added, “the group with ML disease probably was the most improved over time on the PAQ scores,” he said, explaining that across the board, this group had lower baseline PAQ scores than all the other groups.
“No significant benefits were found with intervention versus medical management for FP and IP,” he said. “This suggests that intervention should be considered after medical management has been exhausted.”
Dr. Vogel also said the findings support aggressive treatment of AI and ML for symptomatic claudication. “This anatomic region represents the greatest potential benefit for improving overall health status in patients with symptomatic PAD,” he said.
Dr. Vogel had no relevant financial relationships to disclose.