CHICAGO – The severity of heart failure in the setting of acute myocardial infarction predicts long-term cardiovascular death risk, according to a post hoc analysis of data from the IMPROVE IT Trial.
Among 11,185 individuals with MI and known Killip Classification who were part of that randomized, double-blind trial, those with Killip Class II or greater had more than double the risk of long-term cardiovascular death, compared with those with Killip Class I heart failure, Dr Michael G. Silverman, a cardiovascular medicine fellow at Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston and a research fellow at the Thrombolysis in MI (TIMI) Study Group reported in a poster at the annual meeting of the American College of Cardiology.
After adjusting for a number of factors, including age, gender, diabetes, hypertension, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), beta blocker and ACE inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker use at randomization, and percutaneous coronary intervention at the index event, the 7-year event rate was 14.5% among those with Killip Class II or higher vs. 5.7% those with Killip Class I heart failure (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.9), Dr. Silverman reported on behalf of the TIMI Study Group.
The event rates from 30 days to 6 months were 4.85% and 1.25% in the groups, respectively (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.96), and from 6 months to 7 years they were 1.52% and 0.61%, in the groups, respectively, (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.85).
Further, the increased risk of cardiovascular death associated with Killip Class II or higher was also apparent among important subgroups, including those with ST Segment Elevation MI, those with non-STEMI, those with LVEF of 50 or greater, those with LVEF less than 50, those with diabetes, those without diabetes, men, and women (adjusted hazard ratios ranging from 1.6 to 2.1), Dr Silverman explained in an interview.
The severity of heart failure according to Killip Class is a strong independent predictor of mortality in the setting of acute MI, and the current findings demonstrate that it also predicts cardiovascular death for at least 7 years, suggesting a need for careful attention to the findings of the physical exam in AMI, as it can serve as an important biomarker of long-term cardiovascular death risk, he said.
“AMI patients with Killip Class II or greater warrant continued close medical follow-up and adherence to guideline -directed medial therapy beyond the acute hospitalization to prevent this potentially modifiable outcome,” he concluded.
Dr. Silverman reported having no disclosures.