ORLANDO – Cases of contrast-induced nephropathy increased dramatically among Medicare patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) during a recent 5-year period, despite the increased attention that has been drawn to the problem.
“These findings suggest that despite a longstanding focus on preventing CIN [contrast-induced nephropathy], the complication is increasing steadily and new efforts to reduce PCI-related CIN are warranted,” Dr. Phillip P. Brown said at the American Heart Association scientific sessions.
A fresh approach is a priority for Medicare, in part because new-onset renal failure requiring hemodialysis as a result of CIN increases health care costs substantially for the remainder of the patient’s life, noted Dr. Brown of Cardiac Data Solutions in Atlanta.
He presented a retrospective analysis of Medicare data files for 2009-2013. Among 1,552,960 Medicare beneficiaries who underwent PCI without valve surgery or coronary artery bypass graft surgery, 275,471 were admitted for nonelective PCI.
The rate of new hemodialysis as a complication of nonelective PCI increased by 24.8% annually during the study period, climbing to an incidence of 1.15% in 2013. Among patients admitted for elective PCI, the rate of new-onset renal failure requiring hemodialysis essentially doubled from 1% to 2% during the 5-year period.
The rate of new-onset acute renal failure as a complication of nonelective PCI increased by an average of 6.9% annually, reaching 7.67% in 2013. The increase in acute renal failure as a complication of elective PCI was even steeper: an average of 10.6% per year.
In addition to the rising rates of acute renal failure and need for dialysis as a complication of PCI, the proportion of patients who presented with prior dialysis or acute renal failure at admission for the procedure also rose year by year. In 2013, acute renal failure was present at admission in 6.12% of patients undergoing elective and 7.02% having nonelective PCI. Prior dialysis at admission was present in 2.61% and 0.94%, respectively.
Dr. Brown reported having no financial conflicts regarding this descriptive study.