The 2020 Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) diabetes management in CKD guideline states that most patients with diabetic nephropathy and an eGFR ≥ 30 mL/min/1.73 m 2 benefit from treatment with both metformin and a sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, which have been demonstrated to offer substantial benefits in reducing the risks for diabetic nephropathy and cardiovascular disease.
In patients who do not reach individualized targets with metformin and an SGLT2 inhibitor, or who are unable to use these medications, a long-acting glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor antagonist may be used.
Metformin should be administered with caution to patients with CKD because it may increase the risk for lactic acidosis. It is contraindicated in patients with an eGFR < 30, but this patient's eGFR is adequate. Many clinicians might use a lower metformin dosage (1500 mg) as a precaution. Given how high his A1c is, adding a GLP-1 receptor antagonist is probably going to be needed because an SGLT2 inhibitor is only intermediate in terms of glucose reduction.
For control of his hypertension, the American Diabetes Association recommends either an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor or an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) as first-line treatment. However, one agent alone is unlikely to control this patient's hypertension. At his level of eGFR, a thiazide diuretic is unlikely to be very effective. Therefore, a loop diuretic should be initiated with the ACE inhibitor or ARB, especially because he has edema.
Romesh K. Khardori, MD, PhD, Professor, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Diabetes, Endocrine, and Metabolic Disorders, Eastern Virginia Medical School; EVMS Medical Group, Norfolk, Virginia
Romesh K. Khardori, MD, PhD, has disclosed no relevant financial relationships.
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