From the Journals

Prior decompensation in alcohol-associated hepatitis not an ‘absolute contraindication’ for early liver transplant


 

FROM THE AMERICAN JOURNAL OF GASTROENTEROLOGY

Past decompensation in alcohol-associated hepatitis may be linked with worse survival following liver transplantation, but it’s not all bad news, according to a retrospective study.

Traditionally, patients with alcoholic liver disease were asked to be alcohol free for 6 months before consideration for a liver transplantation. In recent years, there’s been a loosening of that policy, with physicians considering “early” liver transplantation (early LT) instead of waiting 6 months. “It became obvious that a lot of patients do resume alcohol use after transplant, and most of them don’t appear to suffer too much in the way of adverse consequences,” said Paul Martin, MD, chief of hepatology at the University of Miami, who was not involved in the current research.

In 2011, a study confirmed that suspicion, finding that 6-month survival was 77% among carefully selected patients with alcohol-associated hepatitis for whom the 6-month sobriety requirement was waived; 6-month survival in those who did not receive a transplant was 22%. The selection criteria included the presence of supportive family members, the absence of severe coexisting conditions, and a commitment to abstaining from alcohol.

Sebastian Kaulitzki/Science Photo Library

However, authors of the current study, published in the American Journal of Gastroenterology sought nuance: The appropriateness of prior decompensation as exclusion criteria in published studies is unknown, so the researchers compared outcomes of patients with prior versus first-time liver decompensation in alcohol-associated hepatitis.

Not all bad news

The study included 241 patients from six sites who consecutively received early LT between 2007 and 2020. Among these, 210 were identified as having a first-time liver decompensation event and 31 as having had a prior history of liver decompensation, defined as being diagnosed with ascites, hepatic encephalopathy, variceal bleeding, or jaundice.

There was no significant difference in median age, Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) scores, or post–liver transplant follow-up time between those with first-time liver decompensation or a prior history. The unadjusted 1-year survival rate was 93% in the first decompensation group (95% confidence interval, 89%-96%) and 86% in the prior decompensation group (95% CI, 66%-94%). The unadjusted 3-year survival rates were 85% (95% CI, 79%-90%) and 78% (95% CI, 57%-89%), respectively.

Importantly, the researchers found an association between prior decompensation and higher adjusted post–liver transplantation mortality (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.72; 95% CI, 1.61-4.59) and harmful alcohol use (aHR, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.07-2.92).

However, the researchers noted that these patients, who had MELD scores of 39 and previous decompensation, were at exceptionally high risk of short-term mortality, but still had 1- and 3-year survival rates above 85% and 75%, respectively, with early LT. “While longer follow-up is desirable as graft failure related to alcohol is most apparent after 5-years post LT, these results suggest that prior decompensation alone should not be considered an absolute contraindication to early LT.”

Limitations of the study included its retrospective data and small sample size for patients with prior decompensation.

“These findings validate the value of the ‘first decompensation’ criteria in published experiences regarding early LT for [alcoholic hepatitis],” the investigators concluded. “Further larger and prospective studies with longer-term follow-up will be needed to assess ways to optimally select patients in this cohort who may benefit most from early LT, and ways to manage patients at highest risk for worse outcomes post LT.”

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