SAN FRANCISCO – Opioids may not always be necessary following elective colorectal surgery. That’s the message coming from a retrospective study of medical records at the University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester, which found that over
“We found that over half of the patients took no opioid pills after discharge, and 60% of the prescribed pills were left over,” said David Meyer, MD, during a presentation of the study at the annual clinical congress of the American College of Surgeons. Dr. Meyer is a surgical resident at the University of Massachusetts.
The team also used the results of their analysis to develop a guideline for the amount of opioid to prescribe following major colorectal surgery, with specific amounts of pills recommended based on the amount of opioid use during the last 24 hours of hospitalization.
“It shows a real interest in tailoring our postoperative care in pain management. They’re trying to find a way to hit a sweet spot to get patients the right amount of pain control,” said, in an interview. Dr. Mitchem is an assistant professor at University of Missouri–Columbia, and comoderated the session where the research was presented.
The researchers performed a retrospective analysis of major elective colorectal procedures at their institution, including colectomy, rectal resection, and ostomy reversal. The analysis included 100 patients (55 female), with a mean age of 59 years. A total of 71% were opioid naive, meaning there was no evidence of an opioid prescription in the year prior to surgery. A total of 74% underwent a laparoscopic procedure, and 75% had a partial colectomy. The postoperative stay averaged 4.5 days.
The researchers converted in-hospital opioid use categories (IOUC) to equianalgesic 5-mg oxycodone pills (EOPs). In the last 24 hours before release, 53% of patients had no opioids at all (no IOUC, 0 EOPs), 25% received low amounts of opioids (low IOUC, 0.1-3.0 EOPs), and 22% high amounts (high IOUC, more than 3.1 EOPs). Overall, prescribed EOP was 17.5, and just 38% was consumed. These numbers were lowest in the no-IOUC group (15.7, 16%), followed by the low-IOUC group (16.0, 32%), and the high group (23.7, 79%; P less than .01).
The researchers then looked at the 85th percentile of EOPs for each group, and used that to develop a guideline for opioid prescription. For the no-IOUC group, they recommend 3 EOPs, for the low-IOUC group they recommend 12 EOPs, and for the high-IOUC group they recommend 30 EOPs.
The researchers examined various factors that might have influenced opioid use, correcting for whether the patient was opioid naive, case type, postoperative length of stay, and new ostomy creation. The only factor with a significant association for excessive opioid use was inflammatory bowel disease, which was linked to a nearly 900% increased risk of using more than the guideline amounts (adjusted odds ratio, 8.3; P less than .01; area under the curve, 0.85).
The study is limited by the fact that it was conducted at a single center, and that patient opioid use was self-reported. The guidelines need to be validated prospectively.
No funding information was disclosed. Dr. Meyer and Dr. Mitchem had no relevant financial disclosures.
SOURCE: Meyer D et al. Clinical Congress 2019,