Major arterial injury associated with total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a rare and potentially devastating complication. However, the rate of injury to smaller periarticular vessels and the clinical significance of such an injury have not been well investigated. The purpose of this study is to describe the rate and outcomes of geniculate artery (GA) injury, the time at which injury occurs, and any associations with tourniquet use.
From November 2015 to February 2016, 3 surgeons at a single institution performed 100 consecutive primary TKAs and documented the presence or absence and the timing of GA injury. The data were then retrospectively reviewed. All TKAs had no prior surgery on the operative extremity. Other variables collected included tourniquet use, tranexamic acid (TXA) administration, intraoperative blood loss, postoperative drain output, and blood transfusion.
The overall rate of GA injury was 38%, with lateral inferior and middle GA injury in 31% and 15% of TKAs, respectively. Most of the injuries were visualized during bone cuts or meniscectomy. The rate of overall or isolated GA injury was not significantly different (P > .05) with either use of intravenous (84 patients) or topical (14 patients) TXA administration. Comparing selective tourniquet use (only during cementation) vs routine use showed no differences in GA injury rate (P = .37), blood loss (P = .07), or drain output (P = .46).
There is a relatively high rate of GA injury, with injury to the lateral GA occurring more often than the middle GA. Routine or selective tourniquet use does not affect the rate of injury.
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