Ice hockey is a fast-paced, collision sport requiring tremendous skill and finesse, yet ice hockey can be a harsh and violent game. It has one of the highest musculoskeletal injury rates in all of competitive sports. Razor sharp skates, aluminum sticks and boards made from high density polyethylene (HDPE), all contribute to the intrinsic hazards of the game. The objective of this article is to review evaluation, management, and return-to-the-rink guidelines after common lower extremity ice hockey injuries.
“Hockey is a fast body-contact game played by men with clubs in their hands and knives laced to their feet, since the skates are razor sharp, and before the evening is over it is almost a certainty that someone will be hurt and will fleck the ice with a generous contribution of gore before he is led away to be hemstitched together again.” —Paul Gallico in Farewell to Sport (1938)
Ice hockey is a collision sport with player speeds in excess of 30 miles/hour, on a sheet of ice surrounded by unforgiving boards, with a vulcanized rubber puck moving at speeds approaching 100 miles/hour.1-3 Understanding injuries specific to this fast-paced sport is an essential part of being a team physician at any level of competitive ice hockey. We are continuing to improve our ability to correctly identify and treat injuries in ice hockey players.2,4 On the prevention side, rule changes in hockey have been implemented, such as raising the age to allow checking and penalties for deliberate hits to the head and checking from behind, to make the game safer to play.3 Additionally, advancements in biomechanical research and 3D modeling are providing new insights into the pathoanatomy of the hip joint, which can be utilized for surgical planning in hockey players and goalies suffering from symptomatic femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) of the hip.5
During the 2010 Winter Olympics, more than 30% of ice hockey players were injured, which was the highest percentage amongst all competing sports.6 They also tallied the highest percentage of player-to-player injuries during the Olympics of any sport. Consequently, the team physician covering ice hockey should be prepared to manage upper and lower extremity musculoskeletal injuries, but also concussions, cervical spine injuries, and ocular and dental trauma.2
One of the earliest epidemiological studies of ice hockey injuries looked at elite Danish hockey players over 2 seasons and found that head trauma accounted for 28% of all injuries, followed by lower extremity injuries at 27% with upper extremity injuries accounting for 19%.7 More recent epidemiological studies have shown similar rates based on body region while further defining individual diagnoses and their incidence. This should help clinicians and researchers develop prevention strategies, as well as improve treatments to optimize player outcomes and return to sport.8,9 Our group recently reviewed the evaluation and management of common head, neck, and shoulder injuries at all competitive levels of ice hockey, and this article serves to complement the former by focusing on lower extremity injuries (Table).2
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