LAS VEGAS – compared with creating the pouch at the time of initial surgery, results from an analysis of national data demonstrated.
“More than 600,000 Americans have UC, and 20%-30% of them require surgical management,”, said at the Crohn’s & Colitis Congress, a partnership of the Crohn’s & Colitis Foundation and the American Gastroenterological Association. “The surgical procedure of choice for many UC patients is total proctocolectomy with ileal pouch anal anastomosis creation.”
According to Dr. Kochar, an advanced fellow in inflammatory bowel diseases at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, existing American medical literature regarding ileal pouch anal anastomosis (IPAA) comes mostly from quaternary care centers and compares one-stage procedures with multistage procedures.
“The risks between two- to three-stage procedures are not described, and there are no prospective national reports of postoperative adverse events after IPAA creation,” she said.
Using data from the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program, Dr. Kochar and her associates conducted an observational cohort analysis of 2,390 adult patients with a postoperative diagnosis of UC who underwent IPAA procedures between 2011 and 2015. Their aims were to evaluate adverse events within 30 days after an IPAA creation and to compare adverse events between pouch creation at the time of colectomy and delayed pouch creation.
They also performed a subanalysis of total abdominal colectomy with ileostomy (TAC), the first stage in the delayed pouch procedures, versus pouch creation at the time of colectomy. Multivariable modified Poisson regression models were used to estimate risk ratios adjusted for age, sex, race, body mass index, smoking status, diabetes, preoperative albumin, and American Society of Anesthesiologists class.
Of the 2,390 patients, 1,571 had pouches created at the time of colectomy (group A), and 819 had delayed pouch creation (group B).
Compared with patients in group B, those in group A were older (a median age of 40 years vs. 37 years, respectively; P less than .01), were more likely to be on an immunosuppressant (51% vs. 15%; P less than .01), have a lower median preoperative albumin level (3.9 vs. 4.2; P less than .01), and a longer median length of stay (6 days vs. 5 days; P less than .01).
On unadjusted analyses, the researchers also observed that, at 30 days, patients in group A had significantly more major complications, such as mortality and cardiac arrest (12.4% vs. 8.7%; P less than .01); minor complications, such as superficial surgical site infections and pneumonia (11.8% vs. 6.1%; P less than .01); unplanned readmissions (statistically similar at 23.3% vs. 21.3%), and unplanned reoperations (7.7% vs. 3.8%; P less than .01).
After controlling for confounders, patients in group B were significantly less likely to have major complications (relative risk, 0.72), minor complications (RR, 0.48), unplanned readmissions (RR, 0.95), and unplanned reoperations (RR, 0.42).
In the subgroup analysis, Dr. Kochar and her associates observed that patients who underwent TAC were significantly older, compared with patients in group A (a median of 46 years vs. 40 years, respectively; P less than .01), and a higher proportion were on immunosuppressants (69% vs. 51%; P less than .01). “Despite these factors, the risk of adverse events after TAC was lower,” Dr. Kochar said.
She acknowledged certain limitations of the study, including the inability to accurately determine the risk of linked surgeries together and the inability to assess institution and operator factors. Also, data were not collected for the purposes of studying inflammatory bowel disease.
“This is the first prospective assessment of morbidity following IPAA creation in UC patients from a national database,” Dr. Kochar concluded. “Delayed pouch procedures are associated with a lower risk of unplanned reoperations and major and minor complications. Immunosuppression at the time of pouch creation may result in an increased risk of adverse events postoperatively. The findings can be valuable for preoperative risk assessment and postoperative management.”
Dr. Kochar reported having no financial disclosures.
*This story was updated on 3/26.
SOURCE: Kochar et al. Crohn’s & Colitis Congress 2018 .