The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) restrains anterior translation of the tibia on the femur and controls rotation of the knee. The natural primary healing potential of the ACL has been extremely poor in clinical and experimental studies, and primary suture repair has not provided stability to the joint in most patients.1-8 This has led surgeons to reconstruct the ACL, rather than to attempt nonoperative treatment. Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction is recommended to help patients maintain activities that place shear and torque forces on the knee or to ameliorate persistent pain due to instability.9 Reconstruction of the ACL in adults is one of the most common procedures performed by orthopedic surgeons. However, reconstruction in the ACL-deficient adolescent remains a controversial subject, with debates surrounding operative timing and surgical technique.
This case report presents a skeletally immature patient who suffered a complete traumatic rupture of his ACL, which intrinsically healed. The patient had a protracted treatment course, complicated by an open tibial fracture with delayed union. He responded to a progressive rehabilitation program and has made a good functional recovery. Review of the literature has demonstrated limited evidence of intrinsic ACL healing, none of which has been shown to occur in a skeletally immature patient. The patient’s mother provided written informed consent for print and electronic publication of this case report.
A 12-year-old boy was brought to our level I trauma center by ambulance after being hit by a car while riding a motorized scooter. He presented with a grade IIIB open tibial fracture and a distal fibula fracture of his left lower extremity and was taken to the operating room that night for irrigation and débridement, percutaneous fixation of the fibula, and intramedullary flexible nail fixation of the tibia. On postoperative day 1, he had increasing pain and, once his splint was removed, his compartments were found to be very tense. He was taken emergently to the operating room for 4 compartment fasciotomies of the left lower extremity with wound vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) placement. This was changed on hospital day 4 and was removed with definitive closure on day 7. Examination under anesthesia prior to the final wound VAC change was performed given the patient’s complaints during physical therapy. This showed anterior and posterior ligamentous instability of the knee, and he was placed in a knee immobilizer. He was discharged on hospital day 11.
At 2-week follow-up, the patient was doing well, except that he was nonadherent with the knee immobilizer and unable to fully extend his left knee. On examination, a posterior drawer sign was noted; therefore, the patient was referred for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to evaluate his ligaments. His MRI, 9 weeks after injury, showed: (1) complete tears of both the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments (PCLs) (Figures 1A, 1B); (2) medial meniscus and lateral meniscus tears; (3) 2.0-cm plate-like avulsion fracture of the posterolateral femoral metaphysis involving the insertion of the lateral head of the gastrocnemius muscle, fibular collateral ligament, and popliteus muscle (Figure 2); and (4) left posterior lateral tibial plateau contusion.
The patient was started on a 6-week course of physical therapy with active and active-assisted extension exercises. At follow-up approximately 3½ months after injury, he was found to have a 35º flexion contracture with pain at the end extension. Unfortunately, his tibial fracture showed minimal signs of healing, and the decision was made to delay surgical intervention on the knee until the tibial fracture had healed. He was given a knee orthotic to wear at night to help regain his knee extension.
Six months after injury, the patient underwent open removal of the avulsed bony fragment, posterior knee capsule release, and autograft of the delayed union tibial fracture. He was placed in a straight leg cast postoperatively and was discharged home on postoperative day 2. He transitioned to a knee immobilizer after 2 weeks. Six weeks after the last surgery, he had range of motion of 0º to 130º. Ligamentous examination at this time showed anterior and posterior drawer signs, positive Lachman test, and dial test with 90º of external rotation. He was placed in physical therapy for a total of 10 weeks to work on his quadriceps muscle strength and 15º extension lag.
On 13-month postinjury radiographs, the patient was noted to have adequate healing of his tibial fracture, and ligamentous reconstruction was discussed. At this time, the patient did not have any instability or pain in the knee. Examination demonstrated a very mild effusion of the left knee. Range of motion determined by goniometer was from -3º to 140º, and Lachman test was positive but with solid 2+ endpoint. He also had a positive posterior drawer sign with no endpoint, positive sag sign of his tibia, and positive active quadriceps test of the left leg. His dial test showed some increased external rotation at 90º but was equivocal at 30º when compared with the contralateral knee, demonstrating involvement of the posterolateral corner.