Pearls

Alternatives to 12-step groups

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Persons addicted to drugs often are among the most marginalized psychiatric patients, but are in need of the most support.1 Many of these patients have comorbid medical and psychiatric problems, including difficult-to-treat pathologies that may have developed because of a traumatic experience or an attachment disorder that dominates their emotional lives.2 These patients value clinicians who engage them in an open, nonjudgmental, and empathetic way.

Eliciting a patient’s reasons for change and introducing him (her) to a variety of peer-led recovery group options that complement and support psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy can be valuable. Although most clinicians are aware of the traditional 12-step group model that embraces spirituality, many might know less about other groups that can play an instrumental role in engaging patients and placing them on the path to recovery.

Moderation Management3 is a secular organization that provides peer-run support groups for patients concerned about their alcohol consumption, and who are considering whether moderation is a workable option. Moderation Management holds that, although abstinence may be the best outcome for many participants, it is not the only measure of success.4 The goal for many patients who cannot or will not obtain sobriety may be “controlled” drinking. This can be useful for persons who want to temper their alcohol use.

SMART (Self-Management and Recovery Training) Recovery5 is a nonprofit organization that does not employ the 12-step model; instead, it uses evidence-based, non-confrontational, motivational, behavioral, and cognitive approaches to achieve abstinence.

Women for Sobriety6 helps women achieve abstinence.

LifeRing Secular Recovery7 works on empowering the “sober self” through groups that de-emphasize drug and alcohol use in personal histories.

Rational Recovery8 uses the Addictive Voice Recognition Technique to empower people overcoming addictions. This technique trains individuals to recognize the “addictive voice.” It does not support the theory of continuous recovery, or even recovery groups, but enables the user to achieve sobriety independently. This program greatly limits interaction between people overcoming addiction and physicians and counselors—save for periods of serious withdrawal.

The Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA)9 is an evidence-based program that focuses primarily on environmental and social factors influencing sobriety. This behavioral approach emphasizes the role of contingencies that can encourage or discourage sobriety. CRA has been studied in outpatients—predominantly homeless persons—and inpatients, and in a range of abused substances.

Click here for another Pearl on familiarizing yourself with Alcoholics Anonymous dictums.

Disclosure

The authors report no financial relationships with any company whose products are mentioned in this article or with manufacturers of competing products.

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