WASHINGTON – Early diagnosis and intervention for genetic diseases using the latest carrier screening can allow families to be prepared and informed prior to pregnancy, said , a clinical product specialist for carrier screening at Myriad Women’s Health, part of a diagnostic testing company based in Salt Lake City, Utah.
“Rare diseases are responsible for 35% of deaths in the first year of life,” she said in a panel discussion at the Rare Diseases and Orphan Products Breakthroughsponsored by the National Organization for Rare Disorders.
Most patients with rare diseases go through a “diagnostic odyssey” lasting an average of 8 years before they receive an accurate diagnosis, she said. During this time, data suggest that they have likely been misdiagnosed three times and have seen more than 10 specialists, she added.
Barriers to genetic screening include limited access to genetics professionals, lack of patient and provider education about screening, issues of insurance coverage and reimbursement, coding challenges, and misperceptions about the perceived impact of screening, noted, manager of the Center for Rare Disease Therapy at the Children’s Hospital of Pittsburgh.
The genetic carrier screening options, often referred to as panethnic expanded carrier screening, represents a change from previous screening protocols based on ethnicity, said Ms. Arjunan. However, guidelines for screening based on ethnicity “misses a significant percentage of pregnancies affected by serious conditions and widens the health disparity gap,” she said.
By contrast, expanded carrier screening allows for standardization of care that gives couples and families information to make decisions and preparations.
Current genetic testing strategies include single gene testing, in which a single gene of interest is tested; multigene panel testing, in which a subset of clinically important genes are tested; whole-exome sequencing, in which the DNA responsible for coding proteins is tested; and whole-genome sequencing, in which the entire human genome is tested for genetic disorders.
Improving access to genetic testing involves a combination of provider education, changes in payer policies, action by advocacy groups, and adjustment of societal guidelines, said Ms. Arjunan. However, the advantages of expanded carrier screening are many and include guiding patients to expert care early and setting up plans for long-term care and follow-up, she noted. In addition, early identification through screening can help patients reduce or eliminate the diagnostic odyssey and connect with advocacy and community groups for support, she concluded.
The presenters had no financial conflicts to disclose.