Defensive medicine exists. The question is how often it happens and how large a role it plays in making medical care in the United States so costly. When Dr. Tom Price was a congressman, he was quoted as saying that defensive medicine is responsible for more than 25% of every dollar this country spends on health care. (Margot Sanger-Katz, New York Times, July 23, 2018). Neither I nor anyone else had any data to support or refute Dr. Price’s claim in 2010, but based on 50 years of practicing and observing medicine, I don’t find his claim completely unreasonable.
Defensive medicine has been going on for so many generations of physicians that most doctors practicing today don’t realize they are doing it. A physician may order a full battery of chemistries on a patient presenting with mild anemia when only a CBC is necessary because that’s the way he was trained.
However, the evidence to support my suspicion that defensive medicine is a significant financial drain on our economy has been difficult to tease out of the tangled web of confounders that is woven into our patchwork health care system. A recent study by two economists provides a glimpse into the role of defensive medicine in the cost of health care (Michael D. Frakes and Jonathan Gruber, National Bureau of Economic Research, July 2018). Using the unusual combination of circumstances in which military personnel and their dependents can or cannot sue depending on where they are receiving care, the investigators found that “liability immunity reduces inpatient spending by 5% with no measurable negative effect on patient outcomes.” While that may not be as high as Dr. Price or I think it may be, 5% of three trillion dollars is serious money.
The bigger problem is that defensive medicine is ugly, artless, and intellectually unsatisfying. While the patient may not view your diagnosis of his chronic debilitating or terminal illness as a work of art, there are such things as beautiful diagnoses. One may be beautiful in its simplicity and its ability to unify a variety of previously unexplained symptoms. Another diagnosis may be the intellectually stimulating result of a carefully thought out branching decision tree to solve a puzzling array of complaints using a minimum of costly studies.
Defensive medicine decisions are made primarily to avoid mistakes and omissions. Physicians often behave as though we believe our errors will always be fatal. That may be somewhat true for surgeons, but for the rest of us errors can be an important part of learning. The unfortunate outcome of an error, particularly one of omission, can usually be avoided by following the patient closely, remaining available ... and continuing to exude an aura of caring.
With close and thoughtful follow-up, you are going to discover pretty quickly when you have missed the target. Patients understand that we aren’t going to get the correct diagnosis or prescribe the best treatment on the first try every time. What patients don’t understand and what may prompt them to sue is feeling that they are being ignored.
While practicing defensive medicine isn’t usually listed as one of the cardinal symptoms of physician burnout, it probably deserves more attention. With some introspection and a bit of courage,How many of your decisions are being made to avoid an error? Wouldn’t it be more fun to be making beautiful diagnoses you can be proud of?
Dr. Wilkoff practiced primary care pediatrics in Brunswick, Maine, for nearly 40 years. He has authored several books on behavioral pediatrics, including “Is My Child Overtired?: The Sleep Solution for Raising Happier, Healthier Children.” Email him at.