Pregnancy is associated with a significant increase in the risk of ventral hernia recurrence after repair, according to a population-based cohort study published online in the American Journal of Surgery.
Analysis of registry data from 3,578 Danish women of reproductive age who had previously undergone ventral hernia repair showed that subsequent pregnancy was associated with a 56% higher risk of recurrence (95% confidence interval, 1.09-2.25; P = .016), compared with women who did not get pregnant (Am J Surg. 2017 April 5.).
They noted that few studies have directly reported on the rate of ventral hernia recurrence after pregnancy, and the results that do exist are conflicting.
The overall rate of ventral hernia recurrence in the cohort was 12.5%, 67.9% of whom subsequently underwent reoperation to repair. The median time from hernia repair to pregnancy was 1.1 years, and median follow-up was 3.1 years.
Umbilical and incisional hernia repair were independently associated with a higher risk of recurrence (hazard ratio, 1.55 and 3.30, respectively) than epigastric repair, while larger hernia defects also increased the risk of recurrence.
“According to Laplace’s law, both the abdominal wall stretch and the raised intra-abdominal pressure theoretically strain the repaired ventral hernia site and are likely involved in the associated increased risk of recurrence,” the authors wrote. “Furthermore, prolonged duration of the second stage of labor and the use of manual fundal pressure might increase the risk of ventral hernia recurrence.”
The authors pointed out that inadequate fixation and lateral detachment of the mesh material were the most commonly reported mechanisms involved in ventral hernia recurrence after mesh repair. The fact that most mesh materials are far less elastic than the abdominal wall could account for the association between pregnancy and recurrence.
Based on the findings, they suggested that elective surgery for incisional or umbilical hernia repair be postponed until after the last planned pregnancy and that female patients of reproductive age be counseled on the increased risk of recurrence with pregnancy should they choose to undergo ventral hernia repair. They also noted that the natural course of an untreated ventral hernia, how it responds to pregnancy, and the risk of emergency repair during pregnancy need further investigation.
The study was supported by grants from Edgar Schnohr, MD, Dr MSc & Wife Gilberte Schnohr’s Foundation, and Bispebjerg Hospital. No conflicts of interest were declared.