new research shows. Results from a multicenter study of more than 600 women showed that, among participants with migraine, those who were younger, had menstrual migraine, or had chronic migraine were more likely to decide to not become pregnant.
Although women with migraine who avoided pregnancy believed their migraines would worsen during pregnancy or make their pregnancy difficult, previous observational research indicates that migraine often improves during pregnancy.
“Women who avoided pregnancy due to migraine were most concerned that migraine would make raising a child difficult, that the migraine medications they take would have a negative impact on their child’s development, and that their migraine pattern would worsen during or just after pregnancy,” said study investigator, a visiting scientist at Mayo Clinic in Phoenix, Arizona.
The findings were presented at the virtual annual meeting of the American Headache Society.
Plans for the future
There is a paucity of research on the effects of migraine on pregnancy planning, the researchers noted. The few studies that have investigated this issue have focused on women’s previous family planning decisions and experience rather than on plans for the future, the researchers noted.
To evaluate how migraine in women influences pregnancy planning, the investigators analyzed data from the(ARMR). The registry, which was established by the American Migraine Foundation, collects clinical data about individuals with migraine and other headache disorders from multiple centers.
Participants eligible for the current analysis were women who had been diagnosed with migraine on the basis of the International Classification of Headache Disorders–3 criteria. All completed the ARMR questionnaire between February 2016 and September 2019. The investigators excluded patients with trigeminal autonomic cephalalgia, secondary headache, painful cranial neuropathies, other facial pain, and other headaches.
They identified 895 eligible women with migraine. Of these, 607 completed the pregnancy question. Among those participants, 121 women (19.9%) reported that migraine was a factor in their decision to not become pregnant. Of this group, 70 (11.5%) reported that migraine was a “significant” factor in deciding to not have children, and 8.4% said it was “somewhat” of a factor. The remainder of the cohort (479) reported that migraine had no influence on their pregnancy plans.
There were no between-group differences by race, marital status, employment, or income. This finding suggests that sociodemographic differences “have less impact on pregnancy planning than migraine-specific characteristics like headache frequency and experience with having migraine attacks triggered by menstruation,” Dr. Ishii said.
Not surprisingly, women who avoided pregnancy had fewer children than the rest of the sample. About 60% of those who made the decision to not become pregnant had no children, and 72% had not been pregnant since they began experiencing migraine.
Compared with women who reported that migraine had no influence on their pregnancy plans, those who avoided pregnancy were more likely to have chronic migraine at 81.8% versus 70.2%. They were also more likely to have menstrual migraine at 4.1% versus 1%. In addition, women who decided to not have children because of migraine were significantly younger at an average age of 37.5 versus 47.2 years.
The number of days with headache per 3-month interval was 53.9 among women who avoided pregnancy versus 42.5 among the other women. The Migraine Disability Assessment score was also higher for women who avoided pregnancy (132.5) than for it was the other women (91.7), indicating more severe disability.
In addition, more of the women who avoided pregnancy had a history of depression (48.8%) compared with the other women (37.7%). The average score on the Patient Health Questionnaire–4 was higher among women who avoided pregnancy (4.0) than among other women (3.1), which indicates greater anxiety or depression. Among women who avoided pregnancy, 72.5% believed their migraine would worsen during pregnancy, and 68.3% believed that migraine would make pregnancy very difficult.
“Clinicians need to recognize that migraine often has a substantial burden on multiple aspects of life, including one’s plans for having children,” Dr. Ishii said.
“Clinicians should educate their patients who are considering pregnancy about the most likely course of migraine during pregnancy, migraine treatment during pregnancy, and the potential impacts of migraine and its treatment on pregnancy outcomes,” he added.