CHARLOTTE, N.C. – according to research presented at the 48th national meeting of the Child Neurology Society. Most children with NDPH fulfill criteria for its migraine subtype, and one-third of pediatric patients with NDPH have comorbid medication overuse headache (MOH).
NDPH is defined as a daily, unremitting headache that lasts for at least 3 months. “Not many studies on NDPH focus on pediatrics,” said Emily Pierce, from Children’s National Medical Center in Washington. NDPH “is considered to be one of the most intractable headaches in children. Children are able to tell that they’ve had this different type of headache because there’s some kind of onset that is very memorable.”
Ms. Pierce and colleagues conducted an observational study to describe the characteristics of NDPH in pediatric patients who presented to a headache program at a tertiary referral center. The researchers included pediatric patients who visited the headache clinic at Children’s National Medical Center between 2016 and 2018 in their analysis. All patients were enrolled in patient registry that had been approved by an independent review board. Ms. Pierce and colleagues queried the registry for NDPH and reviewed these records to examine participants’ clinical presentations.
The investigators identified 3,260 patient encounters during the study period. Of these encounters, 454 patients (13.9%) were identified as having NDPH. Patients with NDPH were predominantly female (78%) and white (72%). The median age of the sample was 14.8 years.
The frontal head region was the most common location of headache pain, which often had a throbbing quality and was associated with photophobia, phonophobia, nausea, and decreased activity. The median pain intensity was 6 of 10. Approximately 72% of patients had tried abortive medication, and 56% of patients had failed at least one abortive medication. Excedrin, ibuprofen, and acetaminophen were among the common failed abortive medications.
Furthermore, 36% of patients were diagnosed with MOH. The most commonly overused medication was ibuprofen. MOH “is also considered to be intractable for patients with NDPH,” said Ms. Pierce. “Typically, if the patient stops overusing that medication, they’ll find relief from their headaches. However, with our NDPH patients, when they stop overusing that medication, they still are having headaches associated with NDPH.”
The data indicated “a strong difference between our male and female patients,” said Ms. Pierce. Female patients reported significantly more instances of photophobia, phonophobia, nausea, and dizziness than did male patients. Overall, 78% of participants had a diagnosis of an additional comorbidity, such as head trauma (18%), anxiety (14%), depression (8%), or other (37%).
Observational studies of pediatric NDPH offer “a better way for our providers to diagnose these patients, and also to better understand them and help them figure out a treatment that may work,” said Ms. Pierce. In future research, she and her colleagues intend to examine blood work and potential genetic associations in pediatric patients with NDPH.
The study was not supported by funding, and the investigators had no disclosures.
SOURCE: Pierce E et al. CNS 2019, .