Although invasive procedures like cortical stimulation mapping and the Wada test have traditionally been employed to determine the location of motor and language-related areas of the brain prior to ablative epilepsy surgery, a recent review of noninvasive procedures suggests several may have merit. Papanicolaou et al outline the value of magnetoencephalography, functional magnetic resonance imaging, and transcranial magnetic stimulation to accomplish the same purpose and explain the rationale and conditions in which these approaches may be worth considering.
Papanicolaou AC, Rezaie R, Narayana S et al. On the relative merits of invasive and non-invasive pre-surgical brain mapping: New tools in ablative epilepsy surgery [published online ahead of print July 3, 2017]. Epilepsy Res. 2017; doi: 10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2017.07.002.