The FP recognized the severely sun damaged scalp as a major risk factor for skin cancers. He looked closely at the lesions and realized that the ulcerated areas were at particularly high risk for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).
He performed broad shave biopsies with sufficient depth to obtain the needed diagnosis. (See the Watch & Learn video on “Shave biopsy.”) The pathology demonstrated that 2 of the 3 biopsy sites were positive for SCC (E and G were SCC, while F was read as actinic keratosis). Cutaneous SCC is a malignant tumor of keratinocytes. Most cutaneous SCCs arise from precursor lesions, often actinic keratoses. SCC usually spreads by local extension, but it is also capable of regional lymph node metastasis and distant metastasis.
Unsure of the margins of the tumors and aware that surgery of the scalp can be challenging, the FP referred the patient for Mohs surgery. The FP also provided counseling about sun avoidance, the consistent use of a hat outdoors, and the use of sunscreens when exposed to the sun.
The Mohs surgeon recommended field treatment with 5% fluorouracil cream twice daily for 4 weeks before surgery to minimize the amount of cutting that would be needed to clear the SCC from this diffusely sun-damaged scalp. After the 5% fluorouracil cream treatment, the surgeon waited 1 month to allow the scalp to heal before performing surgery.
Photos and text for Photo Rounds Friday courtesy of Richard P. Usatine, MD. This case was adapted from: Karnes J, Usatine R. Squamous cell carcinoma. In: Usatine R, Smith M, Mayeaux EJ, et al. Color Atlas of Family Medicine. 2nd ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2013:999-1007.
To learn more about the Color Atlas of Family Medicine, see: www.amazon.com/Color-Family-Medicine-Richard-Usatine/dp/0071769641/.
The new third edition will be available in January 2019: https://www.amazon.com/Color-Atlas-Synopsis-Family-Medicine/dp/1259862046/.
You can also get the second edition of the Color Atlas of Family Medicine as an app by clicking on this link: usatinemedia.com.