Gender-affirming hormone use was significantly associated with reports of androgenetic alopecia in transgender men, based on data from a survey of 991 individuals.
Given the importance of hair in body image and gender identity, hair concerns are important to the quality of life of gender-minority individuals, wrote Dustin Marks, of Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, and colleagues.
To explore the impact of hormone use on hair loss in gender-minority patients, the researchers conducted a web-based survey of transgender individuals aged 18 years and older, who self-identified as gender minority. Participants were invited based on profiles on Facebook, YouTube, and Instagram. The findings were published in a research letter in the.
The 991 survey respondents included 59% transmen, 31% transwomen, and 9% gender nonbinary or gender queer. The average age of the participants was 33 years; 79% were white, 89% had medical insurance, and 91% reported using gender-affirming hormones.
Overall, 65% of transwomen, 43% of transmen, and 35% of nonbinary individuals reported scalp hair loss or thinning. Scalp hair loss was significantly more common among transmen on masculinizing hormones compared to transmen not on hormones (45% vs. 17%). Scalp hair loss was not significantly different between transwomen on feminizing hormones and those not on hormones.
The transwomen who reported scalp hair loss and were on hormones reported significantly less severe Sinclair grades, compared with transwomen with scalp hair loss and were not on hormones. By contrast, transmen and nonbinary individuals on testosterone reported significantly more hair loss (using Hamilton-Norwood and Sinclair scores) between a baseline before hormone use and their present state of hormone use.
The findings support the impact of testosterone use on androgenic alopecia (AGA) in gender-minority patients similar to the established role of testosterone in male pattern hair loss overall, the researchers wrote.
“Some transmen, moreover, may view AGA as a wanted masculine trait, while others seek dermatologic evaluation and treatment for their hair loss,” they noted. By contrast, some transwomen may find AGA especially distressing. In this study, AGA scores were stable for transwomen, which suggests that feminizing hormones may be enough to stabilize hair loss in these patients.
The study was limited by several factors including use of a convenience sample study population without cisgender controls, lack of data on the duration of hormone use, and specific focus on AGE, the researchers noted.
“Mindful of these limitations, clinicians should appreciate the impact of gender-affirming hormones on androgenetic alopecia severity and continue to address the hair concerns of each patient individually,” they wrote.
The researchers had no financial conflicts to disclose, and no sources of study funding were reported.
SOURCE: Marks D et al. Br J Dermatol. 2019 May 3. .