ATLANTA – Childhood obesity increases the risk of severe dental infections, according to a review presented at the Pediatric Hospital Medicine meeting.
Among 171 children admitted to Rady Children’s Hospital, San Diego, for infected cavities, obese children were almost four times more likely than others to require surgery, and five times more likely to have a tooth pulled.
The average cost for obese children was $13,000/day, versus $10,000/day for nonobese children, probably because of the greater need for surgery. Average length of stay was the same between the two groups, just under 2 days. The findings were statistically significant.
Obesity turns out to be “an important risk factor for invasive interventions for pediatric dental infections,” concluded study leader Michelle Edmunds, MD, a pediatric hospital medicine fellow at Rady.
Childhood obesity has been associated with cavities before, but it’s new information that it increases the severity of dental infections. The finding is something for pediatricians to be aware of and to use to encourage regular dental care. “Even if you are obese, if you are getting routine care, you should be able to have cavities fixed” before they get out of hand. “Unfortunately, a lot of the kids we see don’t get routine care,” Dr. Edmunds said.
The investigators couldn’t assess the role of diet because there wasn’t enough information about it in the medical records. It certainly must play a role, because soda and other junk foods increase the risk of both obesity and cavities.
Other factors also are likely at play. Obesity might affect the oral flora, and perhaps the balance of pathogens. It also seems to reduce healing and infection-fighting ability, so “there might be some immunocompromise that’s playing a role here,” Dr. Edmunds said.
The team compared 25 children up to 18 years old who were at or above the 95th percentile for body mass index – the study definition of obesity – to 146 children who were below that mark. They had all been admitted through the ED between July 2011 and June 2016 with dental abscesses, facial cellulitis, or other dental-associated infections. Eighty percent of the children were on Medicaid, which has, itself, been associated with less frequent visits to the dentist.
About 50% of the children were discharged home without a dental procedure. Among the rest, a quarter had incision and drainage, and a quarter had tooth extractions. Overall 72% (18) of obese children had surgery, usually extractions, versus 43% (62) of nonobese children.
There’s perhaps around 200,000 pediatric ED visits a year in the United States for dental problems. “We’ve had toddlers and kids who have never seen a dentist before; all of their teeth were rotten and had to be pulled out, every single tooth,” Dr. Edmunds said at the meeting sponsored by the Society of Hospital Medicine, the American Academy of Pediatrics, and the Academic Pediatric Association.
The mean age in the study was about 8 years. Nearly 60% of the subjects were boys, and a bit over 60% Hispanic. There were no statistical difference in demographics, prior antibiotic use, or cavity history between obese and nonobese children. Obese children were more likely to be on Medicaid, but not significantly so.
There was no industry funding for the work, and Dr. Edmunds didn’t have any disclosures.