Evolving issues in male hypogonadism: Evaluation, management, and related comorbidities

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Hypogonadism in men has a complex and varied pathogenesis. In addition to multiple established causes of the disease, low testosterone levels are associated with various comorbidities, including metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Symptoms associated with hypogonadism include reduced sex drive, fatigue, and mood disturbances, but accurate diagnosis requires biochemical testing. Total testosterone is considered the appropriate testosterone measurement in most situations in primary care, although free testosterone is a more accurate marker and is indicated in some situations. Testosterone replacement therapy is a valid treatment option for men with testosterone deficiency accompanied by symptoms of hypogonadism. The goals of therapy are to restore physiologic testosterone levels and alleviate symptoms. A potential association of testosterone replacement therapy with prostate cancer is the biggest safety concern, so patient monitoring should include regular digital rectal examination and prostate-specific antigen tests.


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