Hepatitis C infection: A systemic disease with extrahepatic manifestations
Aman Ali, MD
Department of General Internal Medicine, The Cleveland Clinic Foundation
Nizar N. Zein, MD
Director, Clinical Hepatology, Department of Gastroenterology, The Cleveland Clinic Foundation
Address: Nizar N. Zein, MD, A30, The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44195
ABSTRACTMixed cryoglobulinemia, renal syndromes, lymphoproliferative disorders, Sjögren syndrome, porphyria cutanea tarda, and neuropathies are all strongly associated with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Diabetes, thyroid disease, and the presence of autoantibodies in the serum are also linked to HCV, but less strongly. The pathophysiologic basis for most of these syndromes seems immunologic. Cirrhosis and chronic HCV infection seem to be risk factors.