The pulmonary effects of free-base cocaine: A review

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The number of people smoking free-base cocaine, or “crack,” has increased dramatically in recent years. Concomitantly, the literature describing complications of such use has grown as well. Adverse pulmonary effects are being increasingly noted, such as respiratory symptoms, pulmonary hemorrhage, pulmonary edema, asthma, and pulmonary barotrauma. These and other pulmonary effects are reviewed.


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