Alternate delivery methods for morphine sulfate in cancer pain
Kirk V. Shepard, MD
Alan W. Bakst, RPH, PharmDAddress reprint requests to A.W.B., Hospital Pharmacy Department, The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, One Clinic Center, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio 44195.
New routes of opioid administration that have become available in recent years can be managed by the primary care physician or the oncologist in an attempt to improve pain control and the quality of life. Although oral morphine sulfate is the standard treatment for cancer patients with chronic pain, these novel methods of delivering morphine have enabled some patients whose pain is refractory to traditional methods of drug administration to obtain satisfactory control of their symptoms. The authors review some of these innovative methods.