The anemia of chronic renal failure
Emil P. Paganini, MD, FACPAddress reprint requests to E.P.P., Section of Dialysis and Extracorporeal Therapy, Department of Hypertension and Nephrology, The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, One Clinic Center, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, Ohio 44195.
José Garcia, MD
Mohamed Abdulhadi, MD
Deborah Lathim, RN
Joan Giesman, RN
James K. Weick, MD
One of the most important deficiency states associated with chronic renal failure is profound anemia. While it has been possible to identify differing types of anemia in patients receiving dialysis support, and thus correct the secondary causes, most patients continue to exhibit symptoms and signs of the anemic state. This review of the anemias associated with renal failure explores the diagnostic and therapeutic possibilities that may help the physician in evaluating the anemic patient with chronic renal failure. Also described is the early clinical experience with a new genetically engineered hormone, recombinant human erythropoietin (r-HuEPo), which has been under investigation for nearly two years at The Cleveland Clinic Foundation as part of a multi-center trial. An orderly approach to the anemic patient with renal dysfunction is suggested, and conjectures about the impact of newer therapies are made.