Cavernous Hemangioma of the Synovial Membrane of the Knee Joint

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CAVERNOUS hemangioma of the synovial membrane of the knee joint is not common, as reports of approximately 50 cases have been published.1–4 In spite of a characteristic clinical picture that the tumor presents, misdiagnosis is often made, warranting reemphasis of the salient features of this rare entity.

Hemangiomas are common tumors, and although they appear in several forms, two groups predominate: the capillary hemangiomas, composed of an endothelial component forming many small blood vessels, and the cavernous hemangiomas, characterized by large blood-filled spaces lined with a thin endothelium and lacking the cellularity noted in the former type. The cavernous variety is the most frequent type found in the knee joint.

Cavernous hemangioma of the knee joint was comprehensively discussed by O’Ferrall1 in 1925. He pointed out that blood vessel tumors occurring within joint cavities can present themselves clinically in such a way as to obscure the correct diagnosis. The tumor mass is often palpable around the patella and appears much like a pedunculated joint mouse. The mass is only slightly movable and softer in consistency than cartilage or bone. He observed that the cardinal diagnostic points were: (1) a history of the existence of a tumor since early life, or association with more or less recent trauma; (2) a soft and slightly movable, unusually sensitive joint mass; (3) a reduction in size of the mass on elevation of the extremity; (4) moderate pain with slight limitation of motion, and (5) negative roentgenographic examinations.

Report of Cases

Case 1. An . . .



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