ARTERIAL infusion is the injection of blood, or other fluid, into an artery through a needle or cannula directed toward the heart. The fluid flows in a retrograde direction against the normal arterial current.
Apparently Langendorf,1 in 1895, was the first to employ this method. He succeeded in re-establishing heart activity in the isolated organ using defibrinated, oxygenated blood. In 1914 Crile2 reported the arterial injection of saline solution containing epinephrine together with artificial respiration in the resuscitation of dogs. Seeley3 made the suggestion that the intra-arterial administration of fluids might be preferable to the intravenous route in the treatment of shock. Arterial infusion has been used many times to replace blood after the induction of controlled hypotension.4,5,6 It has been employed with success by other workers in this country and abroad.7,8,9,10
The procedure is most clearly indicated for those patients who are in serious cardiovascular collapse as a result of extensive hemorrhage. Such a patient, who, when first seen, is pulseless and who has an extremely low or absent blood pressure needs a large volume of blood administered intravascularly in order to re-establish circulation. Even more than the need for this large volume of blood, however, is the necessity for an immediate establishment of a reasonable level of pressure in the aorta so that blood may begin to flow at once into the coronary arteries and into the arteries supplying the brain. For this purpose the artery is used simply as a channel to the aorta so that fluid. . .