The presence of visual aura during migraine is associated with an increased risk of atrial fibrillation, a study in Neurology has found.
Researchers reported an analysis of data from the longitudinal, community-based Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study, which included 11,939 individuals with no history of atrial fibrillation or stroke. Of these, 426 experienced migraines with visual aura, 1,090 experienced migraines without aura, 1,018 experienced nonmigraine headache, and 9,405 experienced no headache.
After adjustment for age and sex, individuals who had migraine with visual aura showed a significant 46% increase in the risk of incident atrial fibrillation when compared with those who experienced migraine without aura and a 39% increased risk when compared with individuals who did not experience headache (P = .004). After adjustment for risk factors such as hypertension, smoking, coronary artery disease, and congestive heart failure, the hazard ratio of incident atrial fibrillation was 1.30 for migraineurs with aura, compared with people without headache. In addition, the hazard ratio of incident atrial fibrillation was 1.39 for migraineurs with aura, compared with migraineurs without aura.
In contrast, individuals who experienced migraines without aura did not show a significantly increased risk of atrial fibrillation.
“This finding has important clinical implications and may help us better understand the atrial fibrillation mediation of the migraine-stroke link,” wrote Souvik Sen, MD, MPH, a professor in the department of neurology at the University of South Carolina, Columbia, and his coauthors. “A randomized clinical trial may help ascertain whether patients with migraine with visual aura may benefit from atrial fibrillation detection and subsequent anticoagulation or antiplatelet therapy as a primary stroke prevention strategy.”
The study also showed a significant interaction with age and sex. While men who experienced migraine with aura had an 89% higher risk of atrial fibrillation, women with aura showed no increase in risk, compared with individuals who experienced no headache. Similarly, only individuals aged 60 years or older who experienced migraine with aura showed an increased risk of atrial fibrillation, while those younger than 60 years did not.
The authors noted that previous case reports have recorded the incidence of atrial fibrillation during a migraine attack. Autonomic dysfunction influences the pathophysiology of atrial fibrillation and migraine.
“Cardiac arrhythmia recordings have been shown to be present in ECGs of patients while experiencing migraine headaches as compared with migraine-free phases,” they wrote. “This hypothesis is further supported by atrial fibrillation ablation procedures that have shown tendencies to reduce migraine symptoms and frequencies.”
In regard to the role that migraine aura played in this, they speculated as to whether migraine aura could be the result of cardioembolic stroke that might have occurred because of the atrial fibrillation.
Overall, 167 patients had incident cardioembolic strokes, and researchers suggested strokes in 87% of these cases could be attributed to the atrial fibrillation that came before the stroke.
The stroke incidence rate also was around twice as high in individuals who experienced migraine with aura, compared with those who experienced migraine without aura (4.1 per 1,000 person-years vs. 2.07 per 1,000 person-years).
The study authors acknowledged that patent foramen ovale, which was not assessed in ARIC, is a possible confounder. Previous studies have showed that patent foramen ovale is more common in younger individuals with migraine and particularly in patients who experience migraine with aura.
However, they also noted that trials of patent foramen ovale closures as a treatment for migraine have not shown success in reducing migraine frequency and, therefore, argued against patent foramen ovale as being a major confounder.
The study was supported by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and the American Heart Association. One author declared grants from the National Institutes of health, one declared research support from Tian Medical, and one author is an associate editor for Neurology. No other conflicts of interest were declared.
SOURCE: Sen S et al. Neurology. 2018;91:1-9.
This article was updated 12/12/18.