BALTIMORE – Anatomic repair did not outperform physiologic repair in patients with congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries (ccTGA), according to a study presented by Maryam Al-Omair, M.D., of the University of Toronto at the annual meeting of the American Association for Thoracic Surgery.
Dr. Al-Omair and her colleagues hypothesized that patients undergoing anatomic repair for ccTGA would have superior systemic ventricular function and survival. However, their results showed that anatomic repair of ccTGA did not yield superior survival, compared with physiologic repair, and the long-term impact on systemic ventricular function was not certain.
Because of early evidence showing better outcomes of anatomic over physiologic repair for ccTGA, the surgical trend over time greatly favored the use of anatomic repair: At her team’s institution, anatomic repair went from 2.3% in the 1982-1989 period to 92.3% in the 2010-2015 period, Dr. Al-Omair said.
Their study assessed 200 patients (165 with biventricular ccTGA and 35 Fontan patients) who were managed from 1982 to 2015 at the Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto. The patient treatment groups were anatomic repair (38 patients), physiologic repair (89), single-ventricle (Fontan) repair (35), and palliated (no intracardiac repair) patients (38). The median follow-up was 3.4 years for anatomic repair, 13.5 years for physiologic repair, 7.5 years for single-ventricle repair, and 11.8 years with no repair (11.8 years), reflecting their change in practice.
The investigators followed the primary outcome of transplant-free survival and secondary outcomes of late systemic ventricular function and systemic atrioventricular valve function.
They found no significant difference in transplant-free survival at 20 years in the three repair groups assessed from 1892 to 2105: anatomic repair (58%), physiologic repair (71%), and single-ventricle (Fontan) repair (78%). Looking at the latter period of 2000-2015 for 10-year transplant-free survival, they found similar results: anatomic repair (77%), physiologic repair (85%), and single-ventricle (Fontan) repair (100%).
They also found that transplant-free survival in patients who required no intracadiac repair and had no associated lesions such as ventral septal defect or ventral septal defect with pulmonary stenosis was nearly 95% at 25 years.
A multivariate analysis showed no independent predictors of mortality among the three treatments, patient age at index operation, or period of treatment, as well as the need for a permanent pacemaker, or moderately to severely reduced ventricular function or moderate to severe valve regurgitation after the index operation, according to Dr. Al-Omair.
For the secondary outcome of late systemic ventricular function, a multivariate analysis showed that two of the variables were independent predictors: Index operation at or after 2000 was shown to be protective (hazard ratio, 0.152), while a negative association was seen with moderately to severely reduced ventricular function after the index operation (HR, 12.4).
For the secondary outcome of late systemic valve function, a multivariate analysis showed that three of the variables were independent predictors: Fontan operation (HR, 0.124) and index operation at or after 2000 (HR, 0.258) were shown to be protective, while a negative association was seen with moderately to severely reduced valve regurgitation after the index operation (HR, 9.00).
The researchers concluded that midterm Fontan survival was relatively favorable, pushing borderline repair may not be necessary, and “prophylactic banding” and the double-switch procedure should be looked on with caution for lower-risk patients.
“Our study also showed that survival was best in those having no associated lesions requiring operation, indicating that performing an anatomic repair for those not having associated lesions could be counterproductive,” Dr. Al-Omair concluded.
The webcast of the annual meeting presentation is available at www.aats.org.
Dr. Al-Omair reported that she and her colleagues had no relevant financial disclosures.