SAN DIEGO – The number of has been increasing since 2011, according to a large national analysis.
Lung volume–reduction surgery (LVRS) has been available for decades, but results from the National Emphysema Treatment Trial (NETT) in 2003 () demonstrated that certain COPD patients benefited from the surgery, , said at an international conference of the American Thoracic Society.
In that trial, overall mortality at 30 days was 3.6% for the surgical group. “If you excluded high-risk patients, the 30-day mortality was only 2.2%,” said Dr. Attaway, a staff physician at the Cleveland Clinic Respiratory Institute. “If you look at the upper lobe–predominant, low-exercise group, their mortality at 30 days was 1.4%.”
Subsequent studies that evaluated NETT patients over time showed continued improvements in their mortality. For example, one study found that in the upper lobe–predominant patients who received surgery in the NETT trial, their survival at 3 years was 81% vs. 74% in the medical group (P = .05), while survival at 5 years was 70% in the surgery group vs. 60% in the medical group (P = .02;). Despite this improved mortality, other studies have shown that LVRS remains underutilized. Once such analysis of the Nationwide Inpatient Sample showed a logarithmic drop from 2000 to 2010 ( ). The authors also noted that the overall mortality was 6% and that the need for a tracheostomy was 7.9%. Age greater than 65 years was associated with increased mortality (odds ratio 2.8).
Dr. Attaway and her associates hypothesized that availability of the long-term survival data from the NETT, support from, and the lack of a Food and Drug Administration–approved alternative may have increased utilization of this surgery from 2007 through 2013. With data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample for 2007-2013, the researchers performed a retrospective cohort analysis of 2,805 patients who underwent LVRS. The composite primary outcome was mortality or need for tracheostomy. Logistic regression was performed to analyze factors associated with the composite primary outcome.
The average patient age was 59 years, and 64% were male. Medicare was the payer in nearly half of cases, in-hospital mortality and need for tracheostomy were both 5.5%, and the risk for tracheostomy or mortality was 10.5%. Linear regression analysis showed a significant increase in LVRS over time, with the 320 surgeries in 2007 and 605 in 2013 (P = .0016).
On univariate analysis, the following factors were found to be significantly associated with the composite primary outcome: in-hospital mortality or the need for tracheostomy (P less than .001), respiratory failure (P less than .001), septicemia (P = .01), shock (P less than .001), acute kidney injury (P less than .001), secondary pulmonary hypertension (P less than .001), and a higher mean number of diagnoses or number of chronic conditions on admission (P less than .001 and P = .017, respectively).
On multivariate logistic regression, only two factors were found to be significantly associated with the composite primary outcome: a higher number of diagnoses (adjusted OR of 1.17 per additional diagnosis), and the presence of secondary pulmonary hypertension (adjusted OR 4.4).
“Availability of long-term survival data from NETT, support from the GOLD guidelines, and lack of current FDA-approved alternatives are potential reasons for increased utilization [of LVRS],” Dr. Attaway said. “However, our study showed that in-hospital mortality and morbidity is high, compared to the NETT results. We also found that secondary pulmonary hypertension and comorbidities are associated with poor outcomes. This is important to keep in mind for patient selection.”
Dr. Attaway and her associates reported having no financial disclosures.
SOURCE: Attaway A et al. ATS 2018, Abstract 4436.