HOUSTON – Selected patients who need operations, such as paraesophageal hernia repair and Heller myotomy, for benign hiatal diseases can have laparoscopic outpatient procedures with outcomes comparable with those of inpatients, a Canadian retrospective cohort study found.
“When comparing planned day-case patients with those who had planned admissions, we found that postoperative complication was the only statistically significant different outcome. Our data show same-day discharge resulted in no postoperative mortality, and no difference in postoperative morbidity, emergency room visits, and readmissions compared to traditional inpatient care,” said Juan Carlos Molina, MD, of McGill University Health Centre in Montreal, reporting the study results at the annual meeting of the American Society of Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons.
The McGill researchers analyzed outcomes for 261 patients who had laparoscopic hiatal procedures from April 2011 to August 2016 – 163 as inpatients, 98 as outpatients, whom the study called planned day-case patients. The outpatient cohort consisted of younger patients (aged 60 vs. 66 years), but otherwise demographics between the two cohorts were similar. Discharge requirements after same-day hiatal procedures were the same as those for other outpatient procedures, Dr. Molina said.
The procedures included primary or revisional paraesophageal hernia repair (PEHR) in 123 (47.1%) patients; Heller myotomy in 94 (36%), 9 of which also underwent resection of an epiphrenic diverticulum; and Nissen fundoplication for gastroesophageal reflux disease in 44 (16.9%), of which 20 (45.5%) had a concomitant type I hiatal hernia. Among PEHR patients, 90% were at least type III.
“We include complex cases, such as revisional surgery, massive paraesophageal hernias, patients who had previous treatments for achalasia before surgery, or concurrent epiphrenic diverticulum resection,” Dr. Molina said. “To our knowledge, this report is the first to describe successful outpatient surgery in these complex patients, with comparable outcomes to admitted patients and to those described for more well-established outpatient procedures.”
The overall success rate of planned day surgery was 81.6%. Of the 18 unplanned admissions, patient preference to stay in the hospital and pain were the most common factors. Dr. Molina-Franjola said, “We identified factors that might be predictors of unplanned admission, and we found that female [sex], intraoperative complication, postoperative complications, and procedure performed in the afternoon were significant risk factors.”
Women accounted for 94.4% of the unplanned admissions after outpatient surgery, and PEHR/fundoplication represented 72.2% of unplanned admissions. No day-case patients with unplanned admission group required a reoperation within 30 days, although one who did not have an unplanned admission did.
With time, the share of outpatient procedures increased, Dr. Molina said. “In 2011, around 10% of procedures were day-case and that increased progressively to 67% in 2016,” he said.
Dr. Molina said that patients were sent home with antinauseates and instructions to call immediately if nausea or vomiting ensued. About 5% of outpatients returned for reflux, nausea, or vomiting, he said.
Dr. Molina reported having no financial disclosures.