The use of triclosan-impregnated sutures reduced by half the incidence of surgical site infections in children, a large randomized study has determined.
Overall, the antibiotic-treated sutures cut the number of these infections by 52%, but they were particularly effective in reducing the risk of deep surgical site infections (SSIs), Marjo Renko, MD, wrote ().
The study was conducted in clean wounds in healthy children and in a center that already had a very low rate of surgical site infections (just 5%) – showing that improvement is possible even in optimal care settings, wrote, of the University of Oulu, Finland, and her colleagues.
“This randomized, controlled study shows that even in low-risk settings, where other prophylactic measures are available to use, triclosan-containing sutures effectively prevented the occurrence of SSIs in children,” the team wrote.
The study cohort comprised 1,633 children aged 7-17 who underwent surgery at a single Finnish hospital from 2010-2014. Most were there for planned surgery (87%); the remainder had emergency surgery. The most common surgical site was musculoskeletal (40%), followed by abdominal wall surgery (about 25%), and urogenital surgery (about 13%). The rest were intraabdominal or procedures on the nervous system, chest, and skin or subcutaneous tissue.
The children were randomized to either plain or triclosan-impregnated sutures. The primary outcome was the occurrence of a superficial or deep surgical site infection, based on Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria. The procedures were performed by 69 surgeons.
In a modified intent-to-treat analysis, a surgical site infection occurred in 3% of the triclosan-suture group (20 children) and in 5% of the control suture group (42 children). In the control group, these infections were most often of chest incisions (15%), followed by skin incisions (10%) and nervous system, intraabdominal, and musculoskeletal incisions (8% each). In the triclosan group, the most common site of infection was skin (10%), followed by musculoskeletal (4%), nervous system (2%), and urogenital and abdominal wall incisions (1% each).
Compared with control sutures, triclosan sutures reduced the overall risk of a surgical site infection by 52% (relative risk, 0.48; 95% confidence interval, 0.28-0.80). The number needed to treat to avoid one infection was 36.
The sutures were significantly more effective in reducing deep infections than superficial infections. Superficial infections occurred in 2% of the triclosan group (17) and 4% of the control group (28) – a risk reduction of 39% (RR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.34-1.09) Deep infections occurred in less than 1% of the triclosan group (3) and 2% of the control group (14) – a risk reduction of 79% (RR, 0.21’ CI, 0.07-0.66).
Infections were associated with an increased incidence of wound dehiscence in the control group (6% vs. 4%), the need for additional antimicrobial agents (7% vs. 2%), and wound revisions (2% vs. less than 1%). Children in the control group also had more outpatient visits (8% vs. 4%) and were more often readmitted because of their infection (2% vs. 1%).
The authors noted that triclosan, in the setting of increased household use, “has raised concerns about the toxic effects of the drug on the human body. Observational studies have reported associations between triclosan exposures and altered thyroid hormone levels, body mass index, and waist circumference.”
Two Norwegian studies found that the drug was associated with inhalation allergies and seasonal allergies.
“Because of the agent’s suspected toxicity and to prevent further development of resistant bacteria, use of triclosan should be restricted and reserved only for medical procedures with adequate evidence,” they noted. However, “SSIs cause much morbidity and mortality after surgical procedures, and economic evaluations recommend the use of triclosan-containing material.”
Dr. Renko received grants from the Alma and K.A. Snellman Foundation, the Finnish Medical Foundation, and the Foundation for Pediatric Research.