Premenopausal risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy becomes cost-effective in women who have a 4% or greater lifetime risk of ovarian cancer, according to a modeling study published online in the Journal of Medical Genetics.
The procedure, which is usually undertaken in women aged over 35 years who have completed their families, is available in the United Kingdom to women with a greater than 10% lifetime risk of ovarian cancer. However, the researchers, led by Dr. Ranjit Manchanda of Barts Cancer Institute at Queen Mary University of London, suggested that this threshold has not been tested for cost-effectiveness.
The decision analysis model evaluated lifetime costs as well as the effects of risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy in 40-year-old premenopausal women by comparing it with no procedure in women whose lifetime ovarian cancer risk ranged from 2%-10%. The final outcomes were development of breast cancer, ovarian cancer, and excess deaths from coronary heart disease, while cost-effectiveness was judged against the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence threshold of £20,000-£30,000 per quality-adjusted life-years (QALY).
Researchers found that premenopausal risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy was cost-effective in women with a 4% or greater lifetime risk of ovarian cancer, largely because of the reduction in their risk of breast cancer. At this level of risk, surgery gained 42.7 days of life-expectancy, with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of £19,536($26,186)/QALY.
Premenopausal risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy was not cost-effective at the baseline risk rate of 2%, with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of £46,480($62,267)/QALY and 19.9 days gain in life expectancy (J Med Genetics 2016 June 27. doi: 10.1136/jmedgenet-2016-103800).
The cost-effectiveness was predicated on the assumption of at least an 80% compliance rate with hormone therapy (HT) in women who underwent the procedure; without HT, the cost-effectiveness threshold increased to a lifetime risk of over 8.2%.
“Our results are of major significance for clinical practice and risk management in view of declining genetic testing costs and the improvements in estimating an individual’s OC risk,” the authors wrote.
“With routine clinical testing for certain moderate penetrance genes around the corner and lack of an effective OC screening programme, these findings are timely as it provides evidence supporting a surgical prevention strategy for ‘lower-risk’ (lifetime risk less than 10%) individuals,” noted Dr. Manchanda and colleagues.
They stressed that symptom levels after salpingo-oophorectomy, particularly for sexual function, were still higher even in women taking HT compared to those who hadn’t undergone salpingo-oophorectomy.
“This limitation needs to be discussed as part of informed consent for the surgical procedure and incorporated into [the risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy] decision-making process,” they wrote.
One author declared a financial interest in Abcodia, which has an interest in ovarian cancer screening and biomarkers for screening and risk prediction. No other conflicts of interest were declared.