CHICAGO – Endovascular lower-extremity procedures were not associated with lower 30-day readmission rates compared with open surgery in a retrospective review of 7,089 patients.
All-cause, 30-day readmissions were actually higher with an endovascular approach at 12.3% vs. 9.6% for open procedures (Relative risk, 1.28; P = .0003).
Among all patients, an index diagnosis of gangrene was most predictive of readmission (RR, 1.89; P less than .0001), Dr. Todd R. Vogel said at the annual meeting of the Midwestern Vascular Surgical Society.
The data were compiled from 7,089 patients in the Cerner Health Facts database who were admitted for peripheral artery disease and elective lower extremity procedures (3,615 open; 3,474 endo) between September 2008 and March 2014. Their average age was 67.7 years, 44.7% were aged 70 years or older, 60% were men, and 21% were African American.
Older patients and men were significantly more likely to receive endovascular procedures (P less than .0001), said Dr. Vogel, chief of vascular surgery, University of Missouri Health System in Columbia.
Overall, 767 patients (11%) were readmitted (344 open; 423 endo), with gangrene accounting for 21.7% of readmissions.
Other index diagnoses associated with higher 30-day readmissions for all lower extremity procedures were fluid and electrolyte disorders, chronic anemia, lower extremity infection, heart failure, chronic kidney disease, and chronic pulmonary disease.
When stratified by procedure type, the reasons for readmission were very different within the same population of patients based on procedure type, Dr. Vogel said.
Patients who underwent an open procedure were more likely to be readmitted if they had heart failure (RR, 1.78; P less than .0001) or posthemorrhagic anemia (RR, 1.54: P = .006).
Infections – be they lower extremity infection, other infection, postoperative infection, or sepsis – were not predictive of readmission when documented at the index admission for the open cohort.
In contrast, chronic conditions were the major predictors of readmission for patients undergoing endovascular procedures, he said. They included chronic anemia (RR, 1.58; P less than .0001), chronic airway obstruction (RR, 1.36; P = .0095), chronic heart disease (RR, 1.33; P = .0019), chronic kidney disease (RR, 1.37; P = .0013), diabetes (RR, 1.34; P = .0012), and hypertension (RR, 1.27; P = .023).
Fluid and electrolyte disorders (RR, 1.65, P less than .0001) and lower extremity infections (RR, 1.57, P = .0016) were also significant predictors of readmission in the endovascular group.
To ensure there were no disparities between index and readmission diagnoses, a final analysis was performed by procedure type in the 767 readmissions. It confirmed that for the endovascular procedures, chronic problems are bringing patients back to the hospital and not necessarily complications from the procedure, whereas infections, device complications, and hemorrhage are the reasons open surgery patients return, Dr. Vogel said.
“The question is are chronic conditions associated with readmissions the fault of the intervention? As physicians can we hope to curb this in patients who have chronic problems and are then readmitted?” he said.
Some audience members argued that no matter if the patient had a chronic condition or not preoperatively, the responsibility rests with the surgeon because he or she opted to put the patient through an elective endovascular procedure and now they’re returning with chronic heart failure, for example.
Dr. Vogel said this was the first pass at the data and trying to understand what drives readmissions and that it’s possible an endovascular procedure could exacerbate a chronic condition, but that surgeons should take steps to mitigate readmission risk in those with known chronic conditions.
Other attendees questioned how many of the readmissions were planned, hinting that the readmissions may not be directly related to the endovascular technique.
Dr. Vogel said it was difficult using only the ICD-9 codes in the database to determine exactly how many readmissions were planned, but noted that further analyses are intended.
“Reasons for readmission can be exacerbation of chronic patient issues, as seen in the endovascular group, or may be secondary to later complications of the procedure such as wound infections and device complications, as seen after open bypass procedures,” he said in an interview. “Identifying patients with increased risk for readmission after vascular procedures may lead to more effective and higher quality care during the index hospitalization. Our future studies will focus on a more detailed, granular evaluation of these high-risk diagnoses groups through use of the electronic medical record.”
Dr. Vogel reported having no financial disclosures.
On Twitter @pwendl