Image Quizzes

Complaints of foot pain

Reviewed by Romesh K. Khardori, MD, PhD

Medscape

A 59-year-old woman newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and hypercholesterolemia presents with complaints of foot pain, particularly while wearing shoes. Physical examination reveals an extended metatarsophalangeal joint, a flexed proximal interphalangeal joint, and flexed distal interphalangeal joint. Her toenails are discolored with a yellowish hue, and callus formation is noted over the metatarsal area. The patient reports pain at the tip of the toe from pressure against the point of the distal phalanx. She states that she has not experienced any numbness, tingling, or muscle weakness. Before her recent diabetes diagnosis, the patient had not been receiving regular medical care. The patient's current medications include metformin 500 mg/d, empagliflozin 10 mg/d, and rosuvastatin 10 mg/d.

What is the diagnosis?

Mallet toe

Hammertoe

Claw toe

Charcot foot

This patient's physical findings are consistent with a diagnosis of claw toe, which can be caused by diabetes-related peripheral neuropathy.

According to the International Diabetes Federation, diabetes currently affects approximately 537 million adults worldwide. The number of individuals living with diabetes is expected to exceed 640 million by 2030 and 780 million by 2045. In the United States, more than 37 million people are living with diabetes.

Foot complications related to diabetes represent a significant economic and social burden and can profoundly affect a patient's quality of life and medical outcomes. Common diabetes-related foot complications include foot deformity and peripheral neuropathy, both of which increase the risk for ulceration and amputation. The most common deformity is at the metatarsophalangeal joint (MTPJ). As many as 85% of patients with a history of ulcers and amputation have an MTPJ deformity such as claw toe or hammertoe.

Although they are often grouped together, claw toe and hammertoe have distinct features. Extended MTPJ, flexed proximal interphalangeal joint (PIPJ), and flexed distal interphalangeal joint (DIPJ) are characteristic of claw toe. While hammertoe also has extended MTPJ and flexed PIPJ, the DIPJ is extended rather than flexed. In both cases, the area of high pressure at risk for skin breakdown and ulceration is at the metatarsal head as a result of MTPJ hyperextension deformity.

Prompt detection and care of diabetes-related foot complications can minimize progression and negative consequences on patients' health and quality of life. According to the American Diabetes Association, all patients with diabetes should undergo a comprehensive foot evaluation at least annually to identify risk factors for ulceration and amputation, which include foot deformities, poor glycemic control, peripheral neuropathy, cigarette smoking, preulcerative callus or corn, peripheral artery disease, chronic kidney disease, visual impairment, and a history of ulceration or amputation. When patients present with a history of ulceration or amputation, a foot inspection should be conducted at each visit.

A comprehensive foot evaluation should include inspection of the skin, evaluation of any foot deformities, a neurologic assessment (10-g monofilament testing with at least one other assessment: pinprick, temperature, vibration), and a vascular assessment, including pulses in the legs and feet.

Patients should be educated on risk factors and appropriate management of foot-related complications, including the importance of effective glycemic control and daily monitoring of feet. Treatment may be medical, surgical, or both, as indicated by the individual patient's presentation. Conservative treatment approaches include footwear that is extra wide or deep, avoiding high-heeled and narrow-toed shoes, use of a metatarsal bar or pad, cushioning sleeves or stocking caps with silicon linings, and a longitudinal pad beneath the toes.

Complete recommendations on achieving glycemic control in T2D can be found in the 2022 American Diabetes Association Standards of Medical Care. Guidelines on foot care are also available.

Romesh K. Khardori, MD, PhD, Professor, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Diabetes, Endocrine, and Metabolic Disorders, Eastern Virginia Medical School; EVMS Medical Group, Norfolk, Virginia

Romesh K. Khardori, MD, PhD, has disclosed no relevant financial relationships.

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