Key clinical point: In patients with clinically node-negative oral cavity cancers, rates of skip metastasis to neck level IV are extremely low, meaning that supraomohyoid neck dissection is likely sufficient for most cases.
Major finding: The rate of level IV involvement was about 2.5%, and the rate of skip metastasis was 0.5%.
Study details: A meta-analysis of 11 retrospective studies and 2 randomized clinical trials, including a total of 1,359 patients who had undergone neck dissection.
Disclosures: The study authors reported no conflicts of interest.
Warshavsky A et al. JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2019 May 9. doi: 10.1001/jamaoto.2019.0784.
Although this meta-analysis shows that the risk of level IV involvement is less than 5% in patients with clinically node-negative (cN0) oral cavity cancers, going beyond standard supraomohyoid neck dissection (SOHND) may still be warranted for specific patients.
While the authors conclude that elective treatment of level IV is not required in patients with cN0 oral cavity cancer, there are two situations in which clinicians should consider adding level IV to standard SOHND.
The first is when a patient has gross macroscopic disease in upper levels, particularly level III. Most studies in the meta-analysis had insufficient data to determine whether involvement of upper levels increased risk of level IV involvement. When encountering gross disease during an elective neck dissection, some researchers have recommended including level IV and V.
The second scenario is when a posterolateral oral tongue cancer is near or at the tongue base, since oropharyngeal cancers are known to drain to levels II-IV.
The decision to make exceptions in these two situations should be based on the combination of clinical judgment and evidence-based medicine in certain situations. That said, for most patients with cNO oral cavity cancer, SOHND is enough.
Arun Sharma, MD, MS , is with the division of otolaryngology–head and neck surgery at Southern Illinois University, Springfield. He had no conflict of interest related to his editorial, which appears in JAMA Otolaryngology–Head & Neck Surgery .