The ankle syndesmosis, or inferior tibiofibular joint, is the distal articulation between the tibia and fibula. The syndesmosis contributes to ankle mortise integrity through its firm fixation of the lateral malleolus against the lateral surface of the talus. Ligaments comprising the ankle syndesmosis include the anterior inferior tibiofibular ligament (AITFL), the posterior inferior tibiofibular ligament (PITFL), the inferior transverse ligament, and the interosseous ligament (IOL).12
Ankle sprains are the most common pathology encountered amongst soccer players, representing from one-half to two-thirds of all ankle related injuries. Most sprains occur outside of player contact.
LATERAL ANKLE SPRAINS AND INSTABILITY
Injury to the lateral ligaments of the ankle represents 77% to 91% of all ankle sprains in soccer.6,19 The greatest risk factor for an ankle sprain in a soccer player is a history of prior sprain.20 Other risk factors include increasing age, player-to-player contact, condition of the pitch, weight-bearing status of the injured limb at the time of injury, and joint instability or laxity.21,22
The evaluation of an ankle sprain to determine its severity is best done after the acute phase, approximately 4 to 7 days after the initial injury when both pain and swelling have subsided.23 The anterior drawer (ATFL instability) and talar tilt (CFL instability) tests are useful in evaluating ankle instability in the delayed or chronic setting; however, both have been shown to have limited sensitivity and significant variability amongst different examiners.24
Clinical examination will direct further diagnostic tests including X-rays, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and computed tomography (CT). The Ottawa ankle rules are generally helpful in determining whether plain X-rays are indicated in the acute setting.25,26 (Figure 2) According to these rules, ankle radiographs should be obtained if ankle pain is reported near the malleoli and 1 or more of the following is seen during examination: inability to bear weight immediately after injury and for 4 steps in the emergency department, and bony tenderness at the posterior edge or tip of the malleolus. Stress X-rays are generally not indicated in acute injuries but may be useful in chronic ankle instability cases.23
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